Loading...

BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology

Unit 3: Darwinian Natural Selection   This unit focuses on the idea of evolution through natural selection as first proposed by Charles Darwin.  He developed this theory after he visited the Galapagos Islands, where he observed and recorded the phenotypes of the various birds and other animals he found there.  He later expanded upon these observations in his book The Origin of Species, which laid the foundation for his theory of evolution.  He proposed that species changed slowly over time and not within their own lifetimes, thereby rejecting many of the theories that had previously been used to explain species diversity and change.  A number of scientific discoveries have since substantiated the theory and helped explain the course of life on earth.  We will begin this unit by looking at the major theory in circulation prior to Darwin’s and then directly examine Darwin’s theories.  We will conclude by taking a look at some of the evidence supporting the theory of natural selection.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 14.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 5.75 hours
 

☐    Introduction: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 3.2.5: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 6.75 hours

☐    Introduction: 2.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.1: 1.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 3.4.3: 2 hours

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Distinguish between Lamarck’s arguments about the process of species change and Darwin’s theory of evolution. - Understand fitness and the process of adaptation. - Understand the effect of environment on plastic phenotypes and be able to distinguish this type of change from evolutionary change. - Distinguish between natural selection and sexual selection. - Recognize types of sexual-selection advantages. - Correctly identify figures representing either directional, stabilizing, or disruptive selection and correctly identify situations that would cause any of the above types of selection. - Understand the findings of paleontologists, such as Dozhansky and Mayr, and geneticists that support evolutionary theory.

3.1 Lamarckism   - Reading: Dr. Michael J. Farabee’s Online Biology Book: Chapter 37: “Development of Evolutionary Theory” Link: Dr. Michael J. Farabee’s Online Biology Book“Chapter 37: Development of Evolutionary Theory” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the sections titled “Evolutionary Thought During
the 1700s” and “Evolution by Natural Selection.”  

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately
45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection   - Reading: John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Evolution and Adaptation” Link: John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Evolution and Adaptation” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read from the beginning of the webpage through the
sub-section titled “Heritability.”  These sections will cover the
material in the sub-subunits in subunit 3.2.  

 Exploring these webpages and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the
kind permission of Professor John Kimball, and can be viewed in its
original form
[here](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Evolution.html). 
Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be
reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the
copyright holder.

3.2.1 Observations in the Galapagos Islands   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Nature of Evolution: Selection, Inheritance, and History” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“The Nature of Evolution: Selection, Inheritance, and History” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/TheNatureOfEvolutionSelectionInheritanceAndHistory)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-1)  
 [iTunes U
video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2681544386?i=1462616034)  
 [iTunes U
audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2557557843?i=1132469987)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  It is
attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be
found [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-1).
  • Web Media: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Galapagos Project” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

3.2.2 Natural Selection   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “Natural Selection” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“Natural Selection” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/NaturalSelection_516)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-3)  
 [iTunes U
video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2681855714?i=2009856551)  
 [iTunes U
audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2558377685?i=1085198369)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the lecture.
 This lecture will cover the material in sub-subunit 3.2.3 and
subunit 3.3.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  It is
attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-3).

3.2.3 Adaptation and Fitness   Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture under sub-subunit 3.2.2.

3.2.4 Phenotypic Plasticity   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Expression of Variation: Reaction Norms” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Expression of Variation: Reaction Norms” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/TheExpressionOfVariationReactionNorms)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-8)  
 [iTunes U
Video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2681004687?i=2044780330)  
 [iTunes U
Audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2558361154?i=1758529265)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  It is
attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-8).

3.2.5 Sexual Selection   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “Sexual Selection” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“Sexual Selection” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/SexualSelection)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-13)  
 [iTunes U
video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2687093089?i=2040084395)  
 [iTunes U
audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2557557910?i=2128391607)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  It is
attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-13).
  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Sexual Selection” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Sexual Selection” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on link above and read the entire article.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 10 minutes.

3.2.6 Darwin vs. Lamarck   Note: This sub-subunit is covered by the materials under subunit 3.2.

3.3 Types of Selection: Directional, Stabilizing, and Disruptive   - Reading: John Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Evolution and Adaptation” Link: John Kimball’s Biology Pages“Evolution and Adaptation” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the section
titled “The Effects of Selection on Populations.”  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource has been reposted by the kind
permission of Professor John Kimball, and can be viewed in its
original
form [here](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Evolution.html). 
Please note that this material is under copyright and may not be
reproduced in any capacity without the explicit permission of the
copyright holder.

3.4 Evidence for Evolution Since Darwin   - Lecture: Howard Hughes Medical Institute: David M. Kingsley’s “Fossils, Genes, and Embryos” Link: Howard Hughes Medical Institute: David M. Kingsley’s “Fossils, Genes, and Embryos” (Flash)

 Also available in:  
 [YouTube](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZhxJkGwS_9U)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch this
lecture, paying close attention to sections 6 through 41.  This
lecture will cover the material in sub-subunits 3.4.1 through
3.4.3.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: Public Broadcasting System: NOVA’s “Darwin’s Predictions” Link: Public Broadcasting System: NOVA’s “Darwin’s Predictions” (HTML)

    Instructions: This interactive website details the many ways in which Darwin’s predictions about evolution have been supported by evidence in multiple fields.  Click on the “Launch Interactive” button to begin.  Once you reach the interactive site, scroll down on the left to read the information on each page.  Move from one page to the next by either clicking “Next” above the text or by clicking on the thumbnail pictures at the top of the page.  This resource will cover the material for subunit 3.4.

    Exploring this website and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Darwin’s Missing Puzzle Pieces” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Darwin’s Missing Puzzle Pieces” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above and read this article.  As you read, think about a time period that you would like to know more about.  At the end of this piece, put together a “snapshot” of what organisms lived during the time period that you are interested in.  Make sure that you consider everything from the type of environment that existed at that time to the plants, insects, animals, and fungi (if they all existed).

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Evolution in Everyday Life” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Evolution in Everyday Life” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the article.  This article will give you a good example of how evolution impacts our everyday lives.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

3.4.1 Evidence in Paleontology   - Lecture: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior: “The Fossil Record and Life’s History” Link: Yale University: Stephen C. Stearns’ Principles of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior“The Fossil Record and Life’s History” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [MP4](http://www.archive.org/details/TheFossilRecordAndLifesHistory)  

[MP3](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-19)  
 [iTunes U
Video](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02471197475.2687092912?i=1634628176)  
 [iTunes U
Audio](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu.2413658053.02413658061.2564124711?i=1288777954)  

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the
lecture.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  It is
attributed to Stephen C. Stearns and Yale University's [Open Yale
Courses](http://oyc.yale.edu/).  The original version can be
found [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/ecology-and-evolutionary-biology/eeb-122/lecture-19).
  • Reading: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution: “What is the Evidence for Evolution?” Link: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution: “What is the Evidence for Evolution?” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above and navigate to “Lines of Evidence” under “Resources.”  Read the subsections titled “Fossil Evidence,” “Transitional Forms,” “Homologies” (all subsections), and “Chronology.”  Go back to the “Resources” page and click on “15 Evolutionary Gems” and read examples 1-3.

    Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.2 Evidence from Dobzhansky and Mayr   - Reading: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution: “The History of Evolutionary Thought: 1900 to Present” Link: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution“The History of Evolutionary Thought: 1900-Present” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and read the
subsections titled “Starting ‘The Modern Synthesis’: Theodosius
Dobzhansky” and “Speciation: Ernst Mayr.”  

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.3 Modern Evidence in Genetics   - Reading: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution: “Evolution 101” and “The History of Evolutionary Thought: 1900 to Present” Links: University of California at Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology’s Understanding Evolution: “Evolution 101” and “The History of Evolutionary Thought: 1900 to Present” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link to “Evolution 101”; in
Chapter 2, please read from “Understanding Phylogenies” through
“Adding Time to the Tree.”  Then, click on the link to “The History
of Evolutionary Thought: 1900 to Present” and read the sections
titled “Evolution and Development for the 21<sup>st </sup>Century:
Stephen Jay Gould” and “Genetic Similarities: Wilson, Sarich,
Sibley, & Ahlquist.”  

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Lecture: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Martin Polz’s Introductory Biology: “Population Genetics and Evolution” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Martin Polz’s Introductory Biology“Population Genetics and Evolution” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    MP4
    iTunes U Video

    Instructions: Please click on the link above and watch the lecture.  The material related to modern evidence in genetics begins about 35 minutes into the lecture.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License.  It is attributed to Martin Polz and MIT's OpenCourseWare.  The original version can be found here.

Unit 3 Review and Assessment   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Review” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Review” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above and work through the
questions. When you are finished, check your work against The Saylor
Foundation’s [“Unit 3 Review Answer
Key”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/BIO102_Unit_3_Review_ANSWER_KEY-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF).  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 3 Assessment” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please complete the linked assessment.
     
    You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School account in order to access this quiz.  If you do not yet have an account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after clicking the link.