Loading...

BIO101A: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Unit 8: Cell Division  

Almost all living cells have the ability to divide and form two new cells. Depending on the function of the mother cell, the new cells can be either exact replicas of the original cell or unique new ones. Mitosis is the process by which a cell creates an exact replica of itself; it occurs a countless number of times in living organisms. In fact, because of mitosis, most of the cells in your body are no more than a few months old, regardless of how old you are. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which the mother cell creates uniquely new cells. It only takes place in reproductive cells, such as sperm cells or egg cells. This process explains why you are not an exact replica of your parents and is the reason why humans are as diverse as they are. It might be useful to think of mitosis as the cellular counterpart to DNA replication and meiosis as the counterpart to DNA recombination.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 11 hours. 

☐   Unit 8: 4.5 hours
 
☐   Subunit 8.1: 2.25 hours
 
☐   Subunit 8.2: 1.5 hours

☐   Subunit 8.3: 1 hour

☐   Subunit 8.4: 1 hour
 
☐   Subunit 8.5: 0.25 hours
 
☐   Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- list all the stages of the cell cycle; - describe how the cell cycle is controlled; and - describe the stages of mitosis, the stages of meiosis, and the differences between the two.

8.1 Cell Cycle   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “An Overview of the Cell Cycle”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, et al.’s *Molecular Biology of the
Cell,* 4e: [“An Overview of the Cell
Cycle”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26869/) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the “An Overview of the Cell Cycle” and “The
Cell-Cycle Control System Is Similar in All Eukaryotes” sections to
understand the basics of the cell cycle.  

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 

8.1.1 Interphases   - Lecture: Khan Academy’s “Phases of Mitosis”

Link: Khan Academy’s [“Phases of
Mitosis”](https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cell-division/v/phases-of-mitosis)
(YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch the first eight minutes of the lecture to
understand which stages of the cell cycle are considered interphase
and what happens during these stages. Note that this lecture also
covers the topic of S Phase in subunit 8.1.2.  

 Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Khan Academy.

8.1.2 S Phase   - Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Cell Cycle” Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “The Cell Cycle” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this resource and click on the embedded links.
Pay close attention to what occurs during the S phase.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.3 Regulation of Cell Control   - Reading: National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Kirstie Saltsman’s Inside the Cell: “Chapter 4: Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division”

Link: National Institute of General Medical Sciences: *Kirstie
Saltsman’s Inside the Cell*: [“Chapter 4: Cellular Reproduction:
Multiplication by
Division”](http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter4.html)  

 Instructions: Read the “Checkpoints: Cellular Inspectors” section
to gain an overview of how the progression of a cell through the
cell cycle is regulated by proteins.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.2 Mitosis   - Web Media: McGraw Hill: Biology, 8e: “Mitosis & Cytokinesis”

Link: McGraw Hill: *Biology*, 8e: [“Mitosis &
Cytokinesis”](http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__mitosis_and_cytokinesis.html) (Flash)  

 Instructions: Watch this animation to visually distinguish between
the individual steps of mitosis. After watching the animation, take
the quiz to gauge how well you have learned the material. Keep in
mind that mitosis is associated with the cell division of
non-gamete-forming cells (somatic cells). It occurs in unicellular
organisms when they are cloning themselves or in cell division of
somatic cells during growth of multicellular organisms.  
    
 Watching this video and completing the quiz should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Cell Division: Binary Fission and Mitosis”

    Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Cell Division: Binary Fission and Mitosis”

    Instructions: Starting at the “Mitosis” section, read this webpage to learn the processes and stages of mitosis. Please be sure to note the progression of the phases of mitosis, the names of the phases of mitosis, and what each phase of mitosis accomplishes.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “Phases of Mitosis”

    Link: YouTube: Khan Academy’s “Phases of Mitosis” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this lecture, which reviews mitosis. 
     
    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Khan Academy.

8.3 Meiosis I   - Web Media: McGraw Hill: Biology, 8e: “Meiosis I” (Flash)

Link: McGraw Hill: *Biology,* 8e: [“Meiosis
I”](http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter11/meiosis_i.html) (Flash)  

 Instructions: Watch this animation to visually distinguish between
the individual steps of meiosis I. Please also take the quiz
following the animation. In Prophase I, genes from the mother and
father strands recombine to create a new and unique DNA strand.
Think back to DNA recombination. Additionally, meiosis is associated
with cell division of gamete-forming cells (egg- or sperm-forming
cells). Meiosis occurs in animals’ ovaries and testicles and in
plants’ ovaries and anther. Pay attention to how mitosis differs
from meiosis.  

 Watching this animation and taking the quiz should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Phases of Meiosis”

    Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Phases of Meiosis” (HTML)
     
    Also available in:
    Google Books

    Instructions: Read each of the Meiosis I sections to understand what occurs at each stage.

    Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.4 Meiosis II   - Web Media: McGraw Hill: Biology, 8e: “Meiosis II”

Link: McGraw Hill: *Biology,* 8e: [“Meiosis
II”](http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter28/animation__how_meiosis_works.html) (Flash)  

 Instructions: Watch this animation to visually distinguish among
the individual steps of meiosis II. Please also take the quiz
following the animation.  

 Watching this animation and taking the quiz should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Prophase II"

    Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Prophase II” (HTML)

    Also available in:
    Google Books

    Instructions: Read from “Prophase II” through “Telophase II” to understand what happens at each stage of meiosis II.

    Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.5 Cytokinesis   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Cytokinesis” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Cytokinesis” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this section to learn how cells divide into two
separate daughter cells. Remember that cytokinesis occurs at the end
of mitosis, meiosis I, and meiosis II.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 8 Quiz   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 8 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 8 Quiz”

 Instructions: Complete this assessment to gauge your understanding
of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be
displayed when you click the “Submit” button.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.