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BIO101A: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Unit 7: Molecular Genetics  

We will now turn to the molecular aspect of genetics, the field of biology that studies how we pass on our genes (DNA). Simply put, two processes enable us to pass along our genes: DNA replication (which produces an exact copy of the original cell) and DNA recombination (which creates a unique new cell from the mother cell). Recombination is the molecular mechanism that creates diversity amongst life forms. Both replication and recombination are comprised of a complex series of reactions that involve the parent DNA strands. More information on this topic is discussed in the genetics course.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
Unit 7 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 12 hours. 

☐   Subunit 7.1: 1 hour
 
☐   Subunit 7.2: 3.5 hours

☐   Subunit 7.3: 1.5 hours
 
☐   Subunit 7.4: 3.75 hours
 
☐   Subunit 7.5: 1.75 hours
 
☐   Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Unit 7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • list the five major findings of Mendel’s pea experiment;
  • describe the steps of DNA replication;
  • list the difference among eukaryotic cells, bacteria, and viruses; 
  • describe the reproductive mechanisms of viruses and bacteria; and 
  • describe how recombination of genetic material occurs in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. 

7.1 Mendelian genetics   - Reading: Estrella Mountain College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Introduction to Genetics”

Link: Estrella Mountain College:Michael J. Farabee’s [“Introduction
to
Genetics”](http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookgenintro.html) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this webpage to learn the fundamentals of
genetics, which Gregor Mendel demonstrated.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 DNA Replication   - Lecture: Youtube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “DNA Replication and the PCR”

Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley:
*Webcast.Berkeley*: [“DNA Replication and the
PCR”](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=by8SnFVbkfA) (YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch this video from 10:40 minutes to the end
(51:51). It may help to take notes on the lecture as you view it.
This lecture will focus on the molecular aspects of DNA replication,
and it covers the material you need to know for subunits 7.2.1 and
7.2.2.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  

 Terms of Use: The above video is reposted from the University of
California – Berkeley’s *Webcast.Berkeley*. This video is released
under a [Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative
Works 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). 
  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “DNA Replication”

    Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “DNA Replication” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the entire page to learn about DNA replication. The material covers subunits 7.1.1 through 7.1.2.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Seeley, Stephens, and Tate’s Anatomy & Physiology: “DNA Replication”

    Link: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Seeley, Stephens, and Tate’s Anatomy & Physiology: “DNA Replication” (HTML)

    Instructions: Watch the animation on DNA replication, and take the quiz to gauge how well you have learned the material. The animation covers the material you need to know for subunits 7.1.1 through 7.1.2. 

    Watching this animation and taking the quiz should take approximately 30minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.1 Initiation of Replication  

Note: This subunit is covered by the resources assigned beneath subunit 7.2. Watch the video and the animation resources. For the National Center for Biotechnology Information resource, please focus on the “Origins and the Initiation of Replication” section.
 

7.2.2 Okazaki Fragments and Replication Forks  

Note: This subunit is covered by the resources assigned below subunit 7.2. Watch the video and the animation resources. For the National Center for Biotechnology Information resource, please focus on the “The Replication Fork” section. DNA is replicated in the 5’ to 3’ direction, so be sure to understand the significance of this directionality in DNA replication.

7.3 DNA Recombination   7.3.1 Homologous Recombination   - Lecture: YouTube: Stanford University: Professor Gilbert Chu’s "3 Rs of DNA" Link: YouTube: Stanford University: Professor Gilbert Chu’s “3 Rs of DNA” (YouTube)
    
Instructions: Watch and take notes on this lecture from 17:15 to 50:50 minutes. It focuses on several important aspects of DNA recombination. Note that this lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.

 Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This video is released under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Gilbert Chu and Stanford University, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL9E206853733EB978).

7.3.2 Holliday Junction  

Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 7.3.1. The Holliday junction is discussed in the lecture from 20:00–27:00 minutes.

7.4 Molecular Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria   - Lecture: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Microbial Genetics, and Evolution-Chromosomes, Plasmids, and Phage”

Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley:
*Webcast.Berkeley*: [“Microbial Genetics, and Evolution-Chromosomes,
Plasmids, and Phage”](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QavlipBqv8)
(YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture from 5:25 minutes to the end
(48:41) to learn about the genetics of viruses and bacteria. As you
go through this subunit, compare and contrast the differences and
similarities between eukaryotes, bacteria, and viruses. Note this
lecture covers the material you need to know for subunits 7.4.1 and
7.4.2.  
    
 Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The above video is reposted from the University of
California, Berkeley’s
[*Webcast.Berkeley*](http://webcast.berkeley.edu/). This video is
released under a [Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No
Derivative Works 3.0 Unported
License. ](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)

7.4.1 Viral Lytic and Lysogenic Life Cycles  

Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 7.4. Viral lytic and lysogenic life cycles are discussed from 28:00–37:30.

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Biological Diversity: Viruses”

    Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Biological Diversity: Viruses”
    Instructions: Read the “Viruses: A Group of Intracellular Parasites” section to learn about the two kinds of virus cycles.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.2 Bacterial Conjugation, Transformation, and Transduction  

Note: This subunit is covered by the lecture assigned beneath subunit 7.4. Bacterial conjugation and transformation are discussedfrom 37:00–48:41 minutes.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Craig Savage’s “Bacterial Reproduction & Exchanges of Genetic Material” (YouTube)

    Link: YouTube: Craig Savage’s “Bacterial Reproduction & Exchanges of Genetic Material” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Watch the video to gain an understanding of the processes of conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
     
    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Samuel Baron’s (ed.) Medical Microbiology, 4e: “Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation”

    Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Samuel Baron’s (ed.) Medical Microbiology, 4e: “Transformation, Transduction, and Conjugation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the “Transformation,” “Transduction,” and “Conjugation” sections for an overview of these genetic exchange methods. Bacteria use these three separate methods in order to obtain new pieces of genetic information. These methods help bacterial cells overcome their inability to genetically recombine via sexual reproduction, a process that only occurs in eukaryotic cells. Scientists have learned how to use these methods to their advantage in the laboratory; this is how they introduce new genes to bacteria.

    Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.5 Recombinant DNA   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Recombinant DNA”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Geoffrey Cooper’s *The Cell: A Molecular Approach, *2e:
[“Recombinant
DNA”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9950/#A457)(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this entire page to understand recombinant DNA
technology. The discovery of ways to recombine genes in the
laboratory led to the field of biotechnology. For a more in-depth
look at these and similar topics, consider enrolling in [BIO403:
Biotechnology](http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio403/).  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Zabaaz’s “DNA Cloning”

    Link: YouTube: Zabaaz’s “DNA Cloning” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this animation (4:24) of DNA cloning to visualize the steps required for this laboratory technique.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 7 Quiz   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 7 Quiz”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s [“BIO101 Unit 7
Quiz”](http://school.saylor.org/mod/quiz/view.php?id=1348)  

 Instructions: Complete this assessment to gauge your understanding
of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be
displayed when you click the “Submit” button.


 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.