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BIO101A: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Unit 3: Cells   Modern cell theory states that the cell is the smallest unit of life. In other words, the cell is the smallest thing that contains the molecules we just learned about and is considered to be alive. Some forms of life – like bacteria – consist of just one cell, while others – like humans – are made up of trillions of cells. There are three main types of cells: prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and plant cells. Each has its own distinct characteristics. All bacteria, for example, are prokaryotes, while most animal cells are eukaryotes. Scientists have identified and studied many of these differences and, in the process, learned how to design drugs (such as antibiotics) that will target only prokaryotes in case of infection. (Note: If interested, you may choose to study cell biology in greater detail in BIO301: Cell Biology.)

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 26 hours.

☐    Unit 3: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 5.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 7 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6: 0.5 hours

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify and describe the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes; - list the differences between plant and animal cells; - describe the cell membrane’s structure and function; - list the various ways materials are transported across the cell membrane; - describe the functions of the organelles found in a eukaryotic cell; and - describe the various ways cells communicate with one another in a eukaryotic organism.

3.1 Modern Cell Theory and Exceptions   - Reading: William Turner’s “The Cell Theory, Past and Present” Link: William Turner’s “The Cell Theory, Past and Present” (PDF)

 Instructions: Click on “complete article” to read the PDF, which
will help you understand the history of cell theory and modern cell
theory.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Types of Cells   3.2.1 Prokaryotes   - Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Bacteria” and “Archaea” Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Bacteria” and “Archaea” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this article on the prokaryote Bacteria,
clicking on the embedded links and noting the properties and
classifications of these organisms. Then, read the article on the
prokaryote Archaea, noting the unique characteristics of these
organisms. You do not need to click on the links embedded in the
article.  

 Reading these articles and taking notes should take approximately 3
hours.  

 Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the
kind permission of Professor John W. Kimball, and can be viewed in
its original
form [here](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/).
Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be
reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the
copyright holder.

3.2.2 Eukaryotes   - Reading: cK-12: “Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells” Link: cK-12: “Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this section on the differences between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In particular, be sure to
understand the characteristics (i.e., the presence or absence of
organelles, nuclei, and cell walls) that distinguish eukaryotes from
prokaryotes. Also, be sure to click on the embedded links and
explore what you find there.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to cK-12.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Eric Crouch’s “Journey into a Cell” Link: YouTube: Eric Crouch’s “Journey into a Cell” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this video, which is a 3-D animation introducing basic structures and functions of organelles in a eukaryotic cell.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.3 Plant Cells   - Reading: Hartnell College: “Cell Structure and Function Tutorial” Link: Hartnell College: Dr. Katherine Harris’ “Cell Structure and Function Tutorial” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the resource for an overview of plant cells and
how they compare to other eukaryotes. Use the interactive animation
in Section 2 to understand the structure of plant cells.  

 Reading this resource, taking notes, and viewing the animation
should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Katherine Harris and Hartnell College.

3.3 Basic Cell Structures   - Lecture: Khan Academy’s “Parts of a Cell” Link: Khan Academy’s “Parts of a Cell” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture for an introduction to cell
structures.  

 Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Khan Academy.

3.3.1 Cell Membrane   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Cell Membranes” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Cell Membranes” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the entire page to understand cell membranes and
how they work.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.2 Channels and Carriers   - Reading: The Biology Corner: Shannan Muskopf’s “Chapter 5: Membrane Structure and Function” Link: The Biology Corner: Shannan Muskopf’s “Chapter 5: Membrane Structure and Function” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this chapter to learn about the two main types
of transport mechanisms.  

 Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). It
is attributed to Shannan Muskopf.

3.3.3 Glycocalyx   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Glycocalyx”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Geoffrey Cooper’s *The Cell: A Molecular Approach*, 2e: [“The
Glycocalyx”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9898/#A1983) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this section to learn what the glycocalyx is and
why it is important for cell membranes.  
  

Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.4 Cytoplasm and Cytosol   - Reading: DifferenceBetween.net: “Difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm” Link: DifferenceBetween.net: “Difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this explanation of the distinction between
cellular cytoplasm and cytosol.  

 Reading this PDF and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to DifferenceBetween.net, and the original version can be
found
[here](http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-cytosol-and-cytoplasm/).
  • Reading: DifferenceBetween.net: “Difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm” Link: DifferenceBetween.net: “Difference between Cytosol and Cytoplasm” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this explanation of the distinction between cellular cytoplasm and cytosol.

    Reading this PDF and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. It is attributed to DifferenceBetween.net, and the original version can be found here.

3.4 Cell Organelles   - Reading: National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Alisa Zapp Machalek’s “Chapter 1: An Owner’s Guide to the Cell”

Link: National Institute of General Medical Sciences: *Alisa Zapp
Machalek’s* [“Chapter 1: An Owner’s Guide to the
Cell”](http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the introduction to this chapter for a general
overview of cell organelles.  

 Reading this introduction and taking notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The Biology Corner: “Chapter 3 – Cells”

    Link: The Biology Corner: “Chapter 3 – Cells” (HTML)

    Instructions: This is a good introduction to the structure and functions of cellular organelles and will provide you with a background of knowledge and assist with the readings in this unit.

    Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.1 Nucleus, Nucleolus, Chromosomes   - Reading: cK-12: “Cell Nucleus” Link: cK-12: “Cell Nucleus” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this webpage and explore the associated links.
This webpage covers the structures and functions of the nucleus,
nuclear envelope, and the nucleolus.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.2 Centriole, Centromere, Centrosome   - Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Centrosomes and the Centrioles”

Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: [“Centrosomes and
Centrioles”](http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Centrioles.html)
(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this article and click on the embedded links to
understand the functions of centrosomes and centrioles. While these
terms – centriole, centromere, and centrosome – sound similar, they
refer to three distinct structures. The centromere is part of the
chromosome, and a centrosome is the organelle that attaches to the
centromere. A centriole, on the other hand, is the specific part of
the centrosome that attaches to the centromere.  

 Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Boston College: Clare O’Connor’s “Chromosome Segregation in Mitosis: The Role of Centromeres”

    Link: Boston College: Clare O’Connor’s “Chromosome Segregation in Mitosis: The Role of Centromeres” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on the centromere to understand its function.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.3 Mitochondria   - Reading: National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Alisa Zapp Machalek’s “Chapter 1: An Owner’s Guide to the Cell”

Link: National Institute of General Medical Sciences:*Alisa Zapp
Machalek’s* [“Chapter 1: An Owner’s Guide to the
Cell”](http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the “Mitochondria: Cellular Power Plants”
section to learn the structure and function of mitochondria.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 

3.4.4 Golgi Bodies   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Golgi Apparatus”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Geoffrey Cooper’s *The Cell: A Molecular Approach, *2e: [“The Golgi
Apparatus”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9838/) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this webpage to learn about the Golgi apparatus,
which is also called the Golgi complex.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.5 Ribosome   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Ribosome”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Geoffrey Cooper’s *The Cell: A Molecular Approach, *2e: [“The
Ribosome”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9849/) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the “Ribosome,” “The Organization of mRNAs and
the Initiation of Translation,” and “The Process of Translation”
section to learn about the basic structure of the ribosome and its
role in translation. You will learn more about protein synthesis in
a later unit.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.6 Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “The Endoplasmic Reticulum”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Geoffrey Cooper’s *The Cell: A Molecular Approach, *2e: [“The
Endoplasmic
Reticulum”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9889/)(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this entire webpage to learn about the two types
of endoplasmic reticule and what they do. If you want to know more
about this material, consider taking the upper level cell biology
course, [BIO301: Cell
Biology](http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio301/).   
    
 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.7 Chloroplasts   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Cells II: Cellular Organization” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Cells II: Cellular Organization” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the “Mitochondria” through “Chloroplasts and
Endosymbiosis” sections. Be sure to note that animal cells do not
contain chloroplasts.   

 Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.5 Cell Communication   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “Cell Communication”

Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf:
Bruce Alberts. Alexander Johnson, et al.’s *Molecular Biology of the
Cell,* 4e: [“Cell
Communication”](http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21059/)
(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this introduction to cell communication.  
 Reading this introduction and taking notes should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 

3.5.1 Junctions   - Web Media: YouTube: XkabiX’s “Inter Cellular Junctions – The Tissue Level of Organization”

Link: YouTube: XkabiX’s [“Inter Cellular Junctions – The Tissue
Level or
Organization”](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARaj3Kz1cCQ) (YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch this video to see animations of how junctions
are formed and how they function.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Tight Junctions, Gap Tight Junctions”

    Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Tight Junctions, Gap Junctions” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these sections to learn about these two types of junctions.
     
    Reading these sections and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.5.2 Action Potential   - Web Media: Harvard University: Action Potential Link: Harvard University: “Action Potential” (Flash)

 Instructions: Watch this animation and perform the exercises to
learn about action potential and review the notes for subunit 3.3.2:
Channels and Carriers. Make the mental note that the carriers in
nerve cells are part of the cohort of membrane carriers and channels
allowing materials to pass through the phospholipid bilayer.  

 Watching this animation and performing the exercises should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Excitable Cells”

    Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Excitable Cells” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this section and click on the embedded links to learn more about action potential and how it works.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of Professor John W. Kimball and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

3.5.3 Types of Cell Signaling   - Web Media: YouTube: Paul Andersen’s “Cell Communication”

Link: YouTube: Paul Andersen’s [“Cell
Communication”](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnGXItWrJ3k) (YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch this video to learn about the major types of
cell-to-cell signaling. Cell-to-cell signaling is especially
important in multicellular organisms, where the organism’s different
cells are specialized for different functions. In order for the
organism to function as a single unit, the cells in its body have to
coordinate, a process made possible through various forms of cell
signaling. Cell signaling is also important for immune cells. It
allows them to distinguish self from foreign cells, thereby letting
immune cells attack foreign cells (such as bacteria and viruses that
invade the body).   

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.6 Cell Motility   - Reading: Biology Reference: “Cell Motility”

Link: Biology Reference: [“Cell
Motility”](http://www.biologyreference.com/Ce-Co/Cell-Motility.html) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this article to get a basic understanding of
cell motility.  

 Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Brightstorm’s “Cilia and Flagella”

    Link: YouTube: Brightstorm’s “Cilia and Flagella” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this video to learn about the structure and functions of cilia and flagella. Also note the differences between cilia and flagella.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 3 Quiz   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 3 Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 3 Quiz” 

Instructions: Complete this assessment to gauge your understanding
of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be
displayed when you click the “Submit” button.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.