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BIO101A: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Unit 2: Molecules, Macromolecules, and Polymers   Molecules are the basic particles that make up both living and nonliving things. They are comprised of atoms joined together in bonds. Some molecules are quite small, such as water. Larger molecules are called macromolecules and can be hundreds to thousands the size a water molecule. Examples of macromolecules are nucleotides and amino acids. When macromolecules are linked together, they become polymers. Examples of polymers are lipids, complex carbohydrates, and proteins. Although it may seem strange to think of it in this way, life at its most fundamental level consists of a series of reactions involving these molecules. For this reason, you must understand molecules and molecular behavior in order to understand modern biology. (Note that you may opt to study molecules in greater detail in BIO401: Biochemistry.)

Unit 2 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 22.25 hours.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 4.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 0.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.8: 2.5 hours

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hours 

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - list the functional importance of water; - describe the difference among and functional importance of biological molecules like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; - describe the structural and functional differences among different types of lipids, including triglycerides, phospholipids, unsaturated fats, and saturated fats; - explain the functional difference between DNA and RNA; - identify seven functions of RNA; - define the currency of energy in cells and explain how energy is transferred in cells using this currency; and - list three characteristics of enzymes that define enzyme function.

2.1 Water   - Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Chemistry II: Water and Organic Molecules” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Chemistry II: Water and Organic Molecules” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the “Structure of Water” section, which
identifies the characteristics of water that make it the most vital
molecule for life.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Kei Hau School: “The Importance of Water” Link: Kei Hau School: “The Importance of Water” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read and understand this table. It identifies the characteristics of water that make it the most vital molecule for life.

    Reading this table and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2 Carbohydrates   - Lecture: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate and Nucleic Acids” Link: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate and Nucleic Acids” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture form the 2:50 to 13:10 marks to
learn about carbohydrates. Be sure to take good notes. This lecture
provides an overview for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.4.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The above video is reposted from the University of
California, Berkeley’s
[*Webcast.Berkeley*](http://webcast.berkeley.edu/). This video is
released under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
  • Reading: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Carbohydrates” Link: Professor John W. Kimball’s Biology Pages: “Carbohydrates” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article for an introduction to the carbohydrates unit. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.3.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of Professor John W. Kimball, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Reading: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Carbohydrates” Link: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Carbohydrates” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on carbohydrates and click on the embedded links. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.2.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to the University of California, Davis.

2.2.1 Monosaccharides   Note: This subunit is covered by Professor Kimball’s resource in subunit 2.2. Please focus on the “Monosaccharides” section. This subunit is also covered by the University of California, Davis resource in subunit 2.2. Please focus on the “Di-, Poly-Carbohydrates” section.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “Sugars Provide an Energy Source for Cells and Are the Subunits of Polysaccharides”

    Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “Sugars Provide an Energy Source for Cells and Are the Subunits of Polysaccharides” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this section to learn about monosaccharides. Also, take a look at the figures in this section. Glucose, the most common form of monosaccharide, is necessary for life. Essentially all the food that you eat breaks down into glucose. If your body does not obtain enough of it from food, then it will break down your muscle and fat and then convert it to glucose.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.2 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides   Note: This subunit is covered by Professor Kimball’s resource in subunit 2.1. Please focus on the “Disaccharides” and “Polysaccharides” sections. This subunit is also covered by the University of California, Davis resource in subunit 2.2. Please focus on the “Di-, Poly-Carbohydrates” section.

  • Reading: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Carbohydrate Classification” Link: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Carbohydrate Classification” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article, paying close attention to the figures for examples of disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also, click on the hyperlinked names of carbohydrates to learn more about their biological importance.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to the University of California, Davis.

2.2.3 Glycosidic Bonds   Note: This subunit is covered by Professor Kimball’s resource in subunit 2.1. It discusses glycosidic bonds in each of the sections.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “α and β Glycosidic Bonds Link Monosaccharides” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “α and β Glycosidic Bonds Link Monosaccharides” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this section. A glycosidic linkage is simply a bond that joins one monosaccharide to another monosaccharide. Though there are two basic types of glycosidic linkages, our bodies can only break down one type. This limited ability explains why we can eat bread (one type of linkage) but not paper (the other type of linkage).

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 Proteins   - Web Media: YouTube: The Science Department: “Introduction to Proteins” Link: YouTube: The Science Department: “Introduction to Proteins” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video for a brief introduction to
proteins, amino acids, and protein structures.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Proteins” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Proteins” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the “Proteins” section and pay attention to the associated figures (Figures 2.13–2.21) to understand protein structure.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.1 Proteins   - Reading: The Open University: “Proteins” Link: The Open University: “Proteins” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the introduction on this webpage, and then click
on Unit 1 under “Contents.” Read each of the subunits in Unit 1 and
complete the associated activities.  

 Reading this resource, completing the activities, and taking notes
should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.  

 This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). It
is attributed to the Open University.

2.3.2 Amino Acids   - Reading: University of Arizona: The Biology Project: “Biochemistry: Basic Structure of an Amino Acid” and “Biochemistry: The Chemistry of Amino Acids” Link: University of Arizona: The Biology Project: “Biochemistry: Basic Structure of an Amino Acid” and “Biochemistry: The Chemistry of Amino Acids” (HTML)

 Instructions: Study the information on the first webpage to
understand the basic structure found in all amino acids. Then, go to
the second webpage and click on each of the 20 amino acids in the
right margin to learn about their structure and properties. All life
on Earth contains proteins built from the 20 amino acid molecules.
The unique properties of each of these amino acids and the protein
polypeptides formed from their combinations create the diversity of
protein macromolecules. In turn, the diverse protein macromolecules
form enzymes, tissues, organs, and organ systems found in all living
things.  

 Reading these webpages should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.3 Protein Structure   - Reading: National Institutes of Health: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “Four Levels of Structure Determine the Shape of Proteins” Link: National Institutes of Health: Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, et al.’s Molecular Cell Biology, 4e: “Four Levels of Structure Determine the Shape of Proteins” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this section to learn about the four levels of
protein structure in detail.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.4 Lipids   - Lecture: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids” Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture form the 13:10 to 30:25 marks to
learn about lipids. Note that this lecture covers the material you
need to know for subunits 2.4.1 through 2.4.5.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The above video is reposted from the University of
California, Berkeley’s
[*Webcast.Berkeley*](http://webcast.berkeley.edu/). This video is
released under a [Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No
Derivative Works 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Lipids” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Lipids” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this section to obtain an overview of lipids. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.4.1 through 2.4.5.

    Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.1 Triglycerides   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on the section from 16:10–18:00. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on Figure 2.6.

  • Reading: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Triglycerides” Link: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Triglycerides” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on triglycerides and click on the embedded links to learn why triglycerides are necessary for life.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to the University of California, Davis.

2.4.2 Saturated Fats   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on the section from 18:00–19:45. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on Figure 2.5.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Jeremy Berg, John Tymoczko, et al.’s Biochemistry, 5e: “Fatty Acids Are Key Constituents of Lipids” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Jeremy Berg, John Tymoczko, et al.’s Biochemistry, 5e: “Fatty Acids Are Key Constituents of Lipids” (HTML)

    Also available in Google Books (eText)

    Instructions: Read this section to learn about saturated and unsaturated fats. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunit 2.4.3.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.3 Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated Fats   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on the section from 19:45–24:45. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on Figure 2.5.This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 2.4.2. Monounsaturated fats are addressed in the “12.2.1: The Naming of Fatty Acids” section within the resource, and polyunsaturated fats are discussed in the “12.2.2: Fatty Acids Vary in Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation” section.

2.4.4 Phospholipids   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on the section 24:45–27:30. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on Figure 2.7.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “Membrane Lipids are Amphipathic Molecules, Most of Which Spontaneously Form Bilayers” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “Membrane Lipids are Amphipathic Molecules, Most of Which Spontaneously Form Bilayers” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this section to learn why phospholipids are crucial to cells.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.5 Steroids   This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on the section from 27:30–30:20. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.4. Please focus on Figure 2.9.

  • Reading: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Steroids” Link: University of California, Davis: ChemWiki: “Steroids” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article on steroids and click on the embedded links to learn why steroids are necessary for life.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to the University of California, Davis.

2.5 Nucleic Acids   - Lecture: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids” Link: YouTube: University of California, Berkeley: Webcast.Berkeley: “Structure and Function Lipids, Carbohydrate, and Nucleic Acids” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture from the 47:05 mark to learn about
nucleic acids. Note that this lecture covers the material you need
to know for subunits 2.5.1 through 2.5.3.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The above video is reposted from the University of
California, Berkeley’s
[*Webcast.Berkeley*](http://webcast.berkeley.edu/). This video is
released under a [Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No
Derivative Works 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
  • Lecture: Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare: Graham Walker’s “Introduction to Nucleic Acids” Link: Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare: Graham Walker’s “Introduction to Nucleic Acids” (Flash)

    Instructions: Watch the first 7:20 of this video for an introduction to nucleic acids.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Graham Walker and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Nucleic Acids” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Geoffrey Cooper’s The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2e: “Nucleic Acids” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this section for further information on nucleic acids. Note that this reading covers the material you need to know for subunits 2.5.2 through 2.5.3.

    Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes. Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5.1 Nucleotides   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.5. Please focus on the section from 48:30–49:30.

  • Reading: Wikipedia: “Nucleotides” Link: Wikipedia: “Nucleotides” (HTML)

    Instructions: This diagram shows the differences between nucleosides and nucleotides, ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, and the structures of the bases present in RNA and DNA.

    A nucleoside is shown in yellow. A nucleoside is a simple sugar, or a monosaccharide, bonded to a base (in blue). We’ll get to what the bases are and their significance below. Nucleotides differ from nucleosides in that nucleosides are a nucleotide joined to one or more phosphate groups (in red). A nucleotide that is joined to one phosphate group would be called XMP (for the name of the base-monophosphate), a nucleotide that is joined to two phosphate groups would be called an XDP (for the name of the base-diphosphate), and a nucleotide that is joined to three phosphate groups would be called XTP (for the name of the base-triphosphate).

    The sugar is a simple sugar, and if it has an –OH group at the 2’ position (2’ is the number of the carbon in the sugar), the sugar is called ribose. When a ribose is bonded to a base, it is called ribonucleoside. When a ribonucleoside is joined to three phosphate groups, it becomes a ribonucleotide triphosphate. If the sugar has an –H at the 2’ position, the sugar is called deoxyribose. When a deoxyribose is bonded to a base, it is called deoxynucleoside. When a deoxynucleoside is joined to three phosphate groups, it becomes a deoxynucleotide triphosphate.

    On the right side of the diagram, five bases are shown. RNA contains adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U). DNA does not contain uracil; it contains thymine (T). Purines (A and G) contain two ring structures, and pyrimidines (C, U, T) contain one ring structure. An easier way to remember which bases are purines or pyrimidines is that purine is the shorter word, but more complex structure, while pyrimidine is the longer word but less complex structure.

    Studying this diagram and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. It is attributed to Wikipedia, and the original version can be found here.

2.5.2 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.5. Please focus on the sections from 49:30–49:44 and 49:52–50:54. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.5. Please focus on Figures 2.10 and 2.12.

  • Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Bruce Alberts and Alexander Johnson, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “The Structure and Function of DNA” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Bruce Alberts and Alexander Johnson, et al.’s Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4e: “The Structure and Function of DNA” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage to learn about DNA and what it means when we call it life’s informational molecule.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Khan Academy’s “DNA” Link: Khan Academy’s “DNA” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this lecture for an introduction to DNA.

    Watching this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Khan Academy.

2.5.3 RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)   Note: This subunit is covered by the University of California, Berkeley lecture assigned beneath subunit 2.5. Please focus on the section from 49:44–50:54. This subunit is also covered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf resource, assigned beneath subunit 2.5. Please focus on Figures 2.10 and 2.11.

  • Web Media: YouTube: MrDBioCFC’s “Chapter 13 Part 1 – Types of RNA” Link: YouTube: MrDBioCFC’s “Chapter 13 Part 1 – Types of RNA” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this video to learn about the three types of RNA and their unique functions.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Scitable: Dr. Suzanne Clancy’s “RNA Functions” Link: Scitable: Dr. Suzanne Clancy’s “RNA Functions” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article to understand the many functions of RNA in cells.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6 ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)   - Reading: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Jeremy Berg, John Tymoczko, et al.’s Biochemistry, 5e: “ATP Is the Universal Currency of Free Energy in Biological Systems” Link: National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Bookshelf: Jeremy Berg, John Tymoczko, et al.’s Biochemistry, 5e: “ATP Is the Universal Currency of Free Energy in Biological Systems” (HTML)

 Also available in [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=TcxOR7v-gBQC&lpg=PA881&ots=B_NkDwwZwv&dq=Jeremy%20Berg%20and%20John%20Tymoczko%2C%20et%20al%E2%80%99s%20Biochemistry&pg=PA412#v=onepage&q&f=false) (eText)  

 Instructions: Read this section to understand the importance of ATP
– energy’s essential biomolecule. When phosphate is added to AMP
(adenosine monophosphate) it forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate), and
when phosphate is added to that, it forms ATP (adenosine
triphosphate). The energy carried by these molecules are ATP \>
ADP \> AMP. ATP is the main energy carrier inside cells.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.7 Enzymes   Enzymes are proteins that catalyze, or facilitate, biochemical reactions. An important point to note about enzymes are that they do not change in shape or function during the biochemical reaction.

  • Reading: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Reactions and Enzymes” Link: Estrella Mountain Community College: Michael J. Farabee’s “Reactions and Enzymes” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the “Enzymes: Organic Catalysts” section.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products: “Enzymes” Link: YouTube: Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products: “Enzymes” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this video to learn about the importance of enzymes in our daily lives.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: HippoCampus Biology: “Enzymes as Catalysts” Link: HippoCampus Biology: “Enzymes as Catalysts” (Flash)

    Instructions: Please go to this webpage, click on “Biology for AP*,” and then search for the title, “Principles of Bioenergetics.” Click on each of the subtitles under “Principles of Bioenergetics” to get a deeper understanding of kinetics, catalysts, and specificity.

    Watching these animations and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.8 Problem-Based Learning Assessment   - Assessment: Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges: “Problem Set 1” Link: Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges: “Problem Set 1” (PDF)

 Instructions: Complete the linked assessment. When you have
finished, check your work against The Saylor Foundation’s [“Answer
Key to Problem Set
1”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/BIO101B-GuidetoProblemSet1-FINAL.pdf) (PDF).  

 Completing this problem set should take approximately 2 hours and
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is released under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/). It is
attributed to the Washington State Board for Community & Technical
Colleges.

Unit 2 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 2 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 2 Assessment”

 Instructions: Complete this assessment to gauge your understanding
of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be
displayed when you click the “Submit” button.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.