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BIO101A: Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Unit 1: Biology and Life   This unit will provide you with some background information on what biology has meant to people over time, from early Greek philosophers to the scientists that laid the foundation for modern biology. We will also discuss the characteristics that define life in an organism.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 13 hours.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 5.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 6.5 hours

☐    Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - explain why the classical Greek understanding of life was incorrect; - describe the scientific method;  - compare the contributions of early microbiologist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek with those of Louis Pasteur;  - describe the experiments that Gregor Mendel performed and how they led to our understanding of genetic inheritance; - identify the experiments that led to the discovery of the structure of DNA; - summarize the organization of life on Earth from the biosphere to the cells’ organelles; and - describe the roles of organs involved in homeostasis and metabolism.

1.1 Spontaneous Generation   - Web Media: YouTube: EvolutionVsCreation’s “Spontaneous Generation from Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Book and Video Series” Link: YouTube: EvolutionVsCreation’s “Spontaneous Generation from Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Book and Video Series” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video, which will introduce the concept of
spontaneous generation and show some experiments for and against its
validity. The video describes how early scientists mistakenly
thought life spontaneously appeared from nonliving things. The
video’s underlying message also points out how the process of
scientific discovery involves trial and error, allowing later,
correct interpretations of the world to replace earlier, scientific
misconceptions or errors.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2 Early Science and Biology   1.2.1 The Scientific Method   - Web Media: YouTube: Clintondale Community Schools: Greg Green’s “Biology – The Scientific Method”

Link: YouTube: Clintondale Community Schools: Greg Green’s [“Biology
– The Scientific
Method”](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1IcFQmmzC0) (YouTube)  

 Instructions: Watch this video, which will provide a more in-depth
look at the scientific method from a biology point of view. Be sure
to take notes on all the terms the presenter introduces.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the
kind permission of Greg Green from Clintondale Community Schools,
and can be viewed in its original form
[here](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdENszxwmCA). Please note that
this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any
capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

1.2.2 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek   - Reading: Arizona State University’s The Embryo Project Encyclopedia: “Antoni van Leeuwenhoek” (HTML) Link: Arizona State University’s The Embryo Project Encyclopedia: “Antoni van Leeuwenhoek” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this biography of Leeuwenhoek to understand the
life of this famous scientist and his important contributions to
biology.  

 Reading this biography and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: Microbiology Bytes: Alan Cann’s “Antonie van Leeuwenhoek” Link: YouTube: Microbiology Bytes: Alan Cann’s “Antonie van Leeuwenhoek” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Watch this brief video about the life and work of Leeuwenhoek, and take note of Leeuwenhoek’s major accomplishments.

    Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.3 Louis Pasteur   - Reading: BBC History: “Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)” Link: BBC History: “Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this entry to learn about Pasteur and the
importance of his work to advance biology and the idea of germ
theory. Read any milk carton label and you will come face-to-face
with Pasteur’s legacy. See it? The label should read “pasteurized
milk,” referencing Pasteur’s discovery about how heat kills the
organisms that spoil food.  

 Reading this page and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Zephyrus Education: “Louis Pasteur (1822–95)” Link: Zephyrus Education: “Louis Pasteur (1822–95)” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article to understand Pasteur’s contributions to vaccination and disease prevention.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.4 Gregor Mendel   - Web Media: YouTube: Whirlytunes’s “Mendel’s Peas Genetics – Experiments That Changed the World” Link: YouTube: Whirlytunes’s “Mendel’s Peas Genetics – Experiments That Changed the World” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video and note the contributions of Gregor
Mendel to the field of heredity and the future of molecular biology.
We will learn more about mendelian genetics in subunit 7.1.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Scitable: Dr. Ilona Miko’s “Gregor Mendel and the Principles of Inheritance” Link: Scitable: Dr. Ilona Miko’s “Gregor Mendel and the Principles of Inheritance” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article to understand how traits are passed down through generations. In particular, pay attention to the concept of allelles being forms of the same gene.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.5 James Watson and Francis Crick   - Web Media: YouTube: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences: “The Secret of Life – Discovery of DNA Structure” Link: YouTube: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences: “The Secret of Life – Discovery of DNA Structure” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video and note the accomplishment and the
impact of Watson and Crick on molecular biology.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Scitable: Dr. Leslie Pray’s “Discovery of DNA Structure and Function: Watson and Crick” Link: Scitable: Dr. Leslie Pray’s “Discovery of DNA Structure and Function: Watson and Crick” (HTML)

    Instruction: Read this article to understand how DNA was discovered and the contributions of Watson and Crick to the discovery of DNA structure.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Scitable: “Rosalind Franklin: A Crucial Contribution” Link: Scitable: “Rosalind Franklin: A Crucial Contribution” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article about Rosalind Franklin’s contribution to the discovery of DNA structure. Also note the controversy surrounding her contributions.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3 Biological Characteristics of Life   1.3.1 Homeostasis   - Web Media: YouTube: Slackerbiz’s “Homeostasis” Link: YouTube: Slackerbiz’s “Homeostasis” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video, which will teach you all you need
to know about homeostasis. Be sure to know all of the feedback
mechanisms.  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Wikipedia: “Human Homeostasis” Link: Wikipedia: “Human Homeostasis” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article to learn about the homeostasis of the human body. Be sure to take notes on individual topics, such as pH and body temperature.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike 3.0 License. It is attributed to Wikipedia, and the original version can be found here.

1.3.2 Organization   - Reading: Carolina: “Classification: Where Do You Fit?” Link: Carolina: “Classification: Where Do You Fit?” (PDF)

 Instructions: Open the link and read this article, which will help
you understand the main levels of organization in biology, from
largest to smallest.  

 Reading this objective and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.3 Metabolism   - Web Media: Montgomery Community College: Professor Sniezek’s “Introduction to Metabolism: Chapter 8: Metabolism, Energy, and Life” Link: Montgomery Community College: Professor Sniezek’s “Introduction to Metabolism: Chapter 8: Metabolism, Energy, and Life” (PowerPoint or PDF)

 Instructions: Open the link and locate the PDF or PPT file for the
Chapter 8 slides. Read the Chapter 8 slides to learn about
metabolism and its components. Note that metabolism involves many
enzymes. Also, energy generated from metabolism is transferred to
ATP, the currency of cells’ energy, which is then used to transfer
energy from one place to another.  

 Viewing this presentation and taking notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.4 Growth   - Reading: Boundless: “Introduction to Animal Embryonic Development,” “Growth Involves Division and Expansion of Cells,” “Brief Introduction to Morphogenesis,” and “Regulation of Gene Expression Controls Differentiation” Link: Boundless: “Introduction to Animal Embryonic Development,” “Growth Involves Division and Expansion of Cells,” “Brief Introduction to Morphogenesis,” and “Regulation of Gene Expression Controls Differentiation” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read these webpages about organismal development,
growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation to learn about how growth
occurs at all levels, from cell, to organ, to whole organism.  

 Reading these webpages and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: These resources are licensed under [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0
Unported](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/).

1.3.5 Adaptation and Evolution   - Web Media: Tennessee State University: Professor Dafeng Hui’s “Adaptation and Evolution” Link: Tennessee State University: Professor Dafeng Hui’s “Adaptation and Evolution” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read the slides from this lecture, which explain
adaptation and evolution.  

 Reading this PowerPoint lecture and taking notes should take
approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the
kind permission of Professor Dafeng Hui. Please note that this
material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity
without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

1.3.6 Response to Environment   - Web Media: YouTube: Michael Sullivan, Brett M. Warner, and Nicholas Hood’s “Response to Stimuli” Link: YouTube: Michael Sullivan, Brett M. Warner, and Nicholas Hood’s “Response to Stimuli” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this video on response to stimuli, a primary
characteristic of life. Response to stimuli can be behavioral (as
seen in this video) or physiological in nature. For example, a
person can move into the shade if he or she is too hot (behavior),
but that person may begin sweating (physiological).  

 Watching this video and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.7 Reproduction   - Reading: Science Unleashed: “Introduction to Reproduction” Link: Science Unleashed: “Introduction to Reproduction” (PDF)

 Instructions: Open the link and locate the PDF document. Read this
article for an overview of reproduction.  

 Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 1 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 1 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “BIO101 Unit 1 Assessment”

 Instructions: Complete this assessment to gauge your understanding
of the topics covered in this unit. The correct answers will be
displayed when you click the “Submit” button.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.