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ARTH409: Roman Architecture

Unit 2: Architecture of Later Rome and the Provinces   The second half of this course looks at later Rome, beginning with the Emperor Trajan and his many important monuments in Rome.  Building on the information you learned in the first half of this course, you will follow the development of Roman architectural styles and ambitions as the Roman Empire gained power and expanded its borders.  As the Empire grew, it began to build important structures in distant Roman provinces and continued to build in Rome, but on a gargantuan scale.  This unit ends with the reign of Emperor Constantinople, Rome’s first Christian Emperor, a phase in Roman history that anticipates—in its history as well as in its art—the Christian Middle Ages.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 20 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.6: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.7: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.8: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.9: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.10: 2 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the general arc of the history of ancient Rome through the period of Constantine.
  • Identify the major historical events in ancient Roman history through the period of Constantine.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the vital role that imagery, especially architecture, played in Rome’s political and cultural world.
  • Identify the origins of various styles that the Romans borrowed and explain how they were re-purposed.
  • Identify the major stylistic developments from Rome’s origins through the time of Constantine.
  • Identify the styles that were popular under the rule of different Roman emperors, and explain how those styles relate to a political ideology.
  • Discuss the different building techniques used by the Romans and explain how the development of new techniques changed the appearance of Roman architecture.
  • Identify specific monuments and be able to provide basic identifying information, including title, date, location, architects (if known), and patron.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the different provinces of the Roman Empire and the ways in which regional differences are apparent in architecture.
  • Explain the importance of Roman architecture in shaping the architecture of later Western civilizations.

2.1 The Trajan Forum   - Reading: The Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities: Trajan’s Column: Gretchen Umholtz et al’s “Introductory Essay”; University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “The Forum of Trajan” and “Trajan’s Markets” Links: "The Emperor Trajan And His Forum” (HTML); University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “The Forum of Trajan” (HTML) and “Trajan’s Markets” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of Rome and its architecture under Emperor Trajan.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2 Rome and Tivoli under Hadrian   - Reading: De Imperatoribus Romanis: Herbert W. Benario’s “Hadrian (A.D.117-138)”; University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Temple of Venus and Rome” and “Pantheon” Links: De Imperatoribus Romanis: Herbert W. Benario’s “Hadrian (A.D.117-138)” (HTML); University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Temple of Venus and Rome” (HTML) and “Pantheon” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an introduction to the Emperor Hadrian and his most significant commissions.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome and a Villa: Hadrian’s Pantheon and Tivoli Retreat” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome and a Villa: Hadrian’s Pantheon and Tivoli Retreat” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

      
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s "ARTH409 Assessment 2.2" Link: The Saylor Foundation’s ARTH409 Assessment 2.2 (PDF)
     
    Instructions:  Please complete the linked assessment above.  When you have finished, check your work against The Saylor Foundation's "Guide for Responding to Assessment 2.2" (PDF).

2.3 Ostia, Port of Rome   - Reading: Ostia-Antica.org’s: Introduction to Ostia: “4 Ostia’s hey-day: the second century and the Severan dynasty” and University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “The New Utilitarian Aesthetic” Link: Ostia-Antica.org’s: Introduction to Ostia: “4 Ostia’s hey-day: the second century and the Severan dynasty” (HTML) and University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “The New Utilitarian Aesthetic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for a brief introduction to some Roman architecture in Ostia.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “The Roman Way of Life and Death at Ostia, the Port of Rome” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “The Roman Way of Life and Death at Ostia, the Port of Rome” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Quiz: Rome through the Third Century" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Quiz: Rome through the Third Century" (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above to complete a brief quiz that will test your knowledge of the material covered in this course from subunit 1.5 through 2.3.  You can check your answers with The Saylor Foundation’s “Answer Key” (PDF).

2.4 Second and Third Century Rome   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Severan Dynasty (193-235)”; University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Baths of Caracalla”; and PBS: Nova Online’s “Secrets of Lost Empires: Roman Bath: A Day at the Baths” Links: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Severan Dynasty (193-235)” (HTML); University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Baths of Caracalla” (HTML); and PBS: Nova Online’s “Secrets of Lost Empires: Roman Bath: A Day at the Baths” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an introduction to some of the large-scale commissions in the second and third centuries AD, especially the Roman bath.  Please also look closely at all cited images.  For Nova Online site, be sure to click each of the links, numbers 1-10, at the left side of the screen.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.5 Roman North Africa   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jean Sorabella’s “Art of the Roman Provinces, 1-500 A.D.” and De Imperatoribus Romanis: Michael L. Meckler’s “Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)” Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jean Sorabella’s “Art of the Roman Provinces 1-500 A.D.” (HTML) and De Imperatoribus Romanis: Michael L. Meckler’s “Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an introduction to Roman art in the Provinces and the emperor Septimius Severus.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.6 Jordan, Lebanon, and Libya   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “Trade between Romans and the Empires of Asia” and “Nabataean Kingdom and Petra”; Brown University: Petra Great Temple Excavation: Professor Martha Sharp Joukowsky’s “A Brief History of Petra” and “The Great Temple Tour” Links: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “Trade between Romans and the Empires of Asia” (HTML) and “Nabataean Kingdom and Petra” (HTML); Brown University: Petra Great Temple Excavation: Professor Martha Sharp Joukowsky’s “A Brief History of Petra” (HTML) and “The Great Temple Tour” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of Roman architecture in the eastern provinces.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.7 Rome in Athens   - Reading: The Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities: The Ancient City of Athens: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Library of Hadrian,” University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieion),” and The Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities: The Ancient City of Athens: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Philopappos Monument” Links: The Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities: The Ancient City of Athens: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Library of Hadrian” (HTML), University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieion)” (HTML), and The Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities: The Ancient City of Athens: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Philopappos Monument” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages in order for an overview of some of the most important Roman monuments in Athens.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Roman Wine in Greek Bottles: The Rebirth of Athens” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Roman Wine in Greek Bottles: The Rebirth of Athens” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

2.8 The Western Provinces   - Reading: Livius.org: Jona Lendering’s “Arusio (Orange),” “Nemausus (Nîmes),” “Segovia” Links: Livius.org: Jona Lendering’s “Arusio (Orange)” (HTML), “Nemausus (Nîmes)” (HTML), and “Segovia” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of Roman art in the western provinces.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Making Mini Romes on the Western Frontier” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Making Mini Romes on the Western Frontier” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

2.9 The Roman Tetrarchy   - Reading: Livius.org: Ancient Rome: Jona Lendering’s “Tetrarchy,” and ibiblio’s “Diocletian the Builder, and the Decline of Architecture” Links: Livius.org: Ancient Rome: Jona Lendering’s “Tetrarchy” (HTML) and ibiblio’s “Diocletian the Builder, and the Decline of Architecture” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these webpage for an introduction to the Roman Tetrarchy.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome Redux: The Tetrarchic Renaissance” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome Redux: The Tetrarchic Renaissance” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Commission a Building or Other Architectural Monument" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Commission a Building or Other Architectural Monument" (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above to review detailed instructions for completing a creative essay assignment that utilizes the knowledge you have acquired so far in this course.  You can check your answers with The Saylor Foundation’s “Answer Key” (PDF).

2.10 Rome under Constantine   - Reading: School of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Professor Robert Ousterhout’s “Architecture under Constantine I (312-37)”; University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Arch of Constantine” and “Basilica of Constantine”; and Livius.org: Jona Lendering’s “Constantinople (1)” Links: School of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Professor Robert Ousterhout’s “Architecture under Constantine I (312-37)” (HTML); University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Arch of Constantine” (HTML) and “Basilica of Constantine” (HTML); and Livius.org: Jona Lendering’s “Constantinople (1)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of Rome and Constantinople under Emperor Constantine.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

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  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome of Constantine and a New Rome” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Rome of Constantine and a New Rome” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

      
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.