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ARTH409: Roman Architecture

Unit 1: Architecture in Republican Rome and the Early Empire   *This course begins with the earliest known architecture of the ancient city of Rome, which dates back to the eighth century BC and the founding of Rome by Romulus.  Rome’s relationship to its Greek neighbors and to the Etruscans (whom they superseded in Italy) is of paramount importance to our study of this period, as Roman architecture initially borrowed from both of these cultures as it created an innovative architecture full of new motifs and technologies.  In accordance with the Roman Empire’s desire to conquer vast territories, its architecture also suggests power and domination.  Meanwhile, technological innovations freed the Romans from the kinds of restrictions that had previously limited architecture.  Roman architecture could now take almost any shape in even the most unfavorable of settings. 

At the end of this unit, you will understand the developments of early Roman architecture and recognize some of the most important monuments of Ancient Rome.*

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit should take you 23 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.4: 8 hours

☐    Subunit 1.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.6: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.7: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.8: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.9: 3 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the general arc of the history of ancient Rome through the Republican and Early Imperial periods.
  • Identify the major historical events in ancient Roman history through the Early Imperial period as well as the leaders who were presiding at the time of their occurrence.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the vital role that imagery, especially architecture, played in Rome’s political and cultural world.
  • Identify the origins of various styles that the Romans borrowed and explain how they were re-purposed.
  • Identify the major stylistic developments from Rome’s origins through the Early Imperial period.
  • Identify the styles that were popular under the rule of different Roman leaders and explain how those styles relate to a political ideology.
  • Discuss the different building techniques that the Romans used and explain how the development of new techniques changed the appearance of Roman architecture.
  • Identify specific monuments and be able to provide basic identifying information, including title, date, location, architects (if known), and patron.

1.1 Introduction to Roman Architecture   - Reading: SUNY College at Oneonta: Dr. Allen S. Farber’s “Roman Power / Roman Architecture” Link: SUNY College at Oneonta: Dr. Allen S. Farber’s “Roman Power / Roman Architecture” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage in order to get an overview of Roman art and culture.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Introduction to Roman Architecture” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Introduction to Roman Architecture” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

1.2 The Founding of Rome   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Seán Hemingway’s “Etruscan Art” and Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Roman Republic” Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Seán Hemingway’s “Etruscan Art” (HTML) and Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Roman Republic” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages in order to get an overview of Etruscan and early Roman art and culture.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3 Innovation in Roman Architecture   - Reading: University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “Roman Concrete” and University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “Terraces and Substructures” Links: University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “Roman Concrete” (HTML) and University of California, Santa Barbara: Professor Fikret Yegul’s “Terraces and Substructures” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an introduction to the use of Roman concrete and its applications.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Technology and Revolution in Roman Architecture” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Technology and Revolution in Roman Architecture” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0. The original version can be found here.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Quiz: Early Ancient Rome" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Quiz: Early Ancient Rome" (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above and complete this short-answer quiz that will test your knowledge of the material covered to-date in this course.  You can check your answers with The Saylor Foundation’s “Answer Key” (PDF).

1.4 Pompeii and Herculaneum   1.4.1 The Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius   - Reading: SMATCH’s (Scientific Methodologies Applied to Cultural Heritage, Inc.) version of Pliny the Younger’s Letters to Tacitus Link: SMATCH’s (Scientific Methodologies Applied to Cultural Heritage, Inc.) version of Pliny the Younger’s Letters to Tacitus(HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for a primary source description of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in August of 79 AD.
 
Note on the Text: This text comes from the personal correspondence between Pliny the Younger, an important Roman scholar, and the historian Tacitus.  The correspondence provides us with a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius and the subsequent destruction it wrought.   This text is made available by SMATCH, Scientific Methodologies Applied to Cultural Heritage, Inc.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.2 Houses and Villas   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Ian Lockey’s “Roman Housing” Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Ian Lockey’s “Roman Housing” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an introduction to Roman domestic architecture.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.3 First and Second Style Wall Painting   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Roman Painting” Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Roman Painting” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an overview of the major styles of Roman wall painting.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.4 Third Style Wall Painting   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Gilding the Lily: Painting Palaces and Villas in the First Century A.D.” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Gilding the Lily: Painting Palaces and Villas in the First Century A.D.” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/history-art/hsar-252/lecture-7)[  
 iTunes
U](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu-dz.2821773411)  
    
 Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all
lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every
image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.  

 *Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath
subunit 1.4.3. *  
    
 Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale
University: Open Yale Courses), <http://oyc.yale.edu> (Accessed
March 10, 2011) License: [Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history-art/hsar-252/lecture-7).

1.4.5 Special Subjects in Pompeian Wall Painting   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Exploring Special Subjects on Pompeian Walls” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Exploring Special Subjects on Pompeian Walls” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/history-art/hsar-252/lecture-8)  
 [iTunes
U](http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/yale.edu-dz.2821773411)  
    
 Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all
lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every
image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.  

 *Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath
subunit 1.4.3. *  
    
 Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale
University: Open Yale Courses), <http://oyc.yale.edu> (Accessed
March 10, 2011) License: [Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history-art/hsar-252/lecture-8).
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Matching Quiz: Roman Wall Painting" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Matching Quiz: Roman Wall Painting" (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above to complete a brief matching quiz that will test your understanding of the different styles of Roman wall painting, as taught in subunit 1.4 on Pompeii.  You can check your answers with The Saylor Foundation’s “Answer Key” (PDF).

1.5 Augustan Rome   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Augustan Rule (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)” Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Augustan Rule (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an overview of Rome under the Emperor Augustus.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “From Brick to Marble: Augustus Assembles Rome” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “From Brick to Marble: Augustus Assembles Rome” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

      
    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0. The original version can be found here.

1.6 Tombs   - Reading: 3D Visualization in the Arts Network’s “Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome,” Vatican Art’s “The Pyramid of Gaius Cestius,” and Livius.org: Jona Lendering’s “Rome: Tomb of Eurysaces” Links: 3D Visualization in the Arts Network’s “Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome,” (HTML) and Livius: Jona Lendering’s “Rome: Tomb of Eurysaces” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of some of the most important Roman tombs.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.7 Rome under Nero   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art‘s “The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 B.C.-68A.D.) and The Colosseum.net’s “Domus Aurea” Links: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art‘s “The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 B.C.-68A.D.)” (HTML) and The Colosseum.net’s “Domus Aurea” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an overview of Roman art under the Emperor Nero.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Notorious Nero and His Amazing Architectural Legacy” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “Notorious Nero and His Amazing Architectural Legacy” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

1.8 The Colosseum   - Reading: University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Colosseum” Links: University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Colosseum” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage for an overview of Rome’s most important amphitheater, the Colosseum.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.9 Rome under Domitian   - Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Flavian Dynasty (69-96)” and University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Arch of Titus” Links: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “The Flavian Dynasty (69-96)” (HTML) and University of Chicago: Encyclopaedia Romana: James Grout’s “Arch of Titus” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of these web pages for an introduction to Rome under the Emperor Domitian.  Please also look closely at all cited images.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “The Prince and the Palace: Human Made Divine on the Palatine Hill” Lecture Link: Yale University: Professor Diana E. E. Kleiner’s “The Prince and the Palace: Human Made Divine on the Palatine Hill” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime
    iTunes U

    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this video.  As with all lectures for this class, you should pay careful attention to every image discussed and take careful note of dates and vocabulary.
     
    Terms of Use: Diana E. E. Kleiner, Roman Architecture (Yale University: Open Yale Courses), http://oyc.yale.edu (Accessed March 10, 2011) License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0.  The original version can be found here.

  • Assessment: Pearson Education’s Companion Website: Art History: A View of the West, 3rd Edition: “Chapter 6, Etruscan and Roman Art: Elements and Media: Labeling” Quiz Link: Pearson Education’s Companion Website: Art History: A View of the West, 3rd Edition: “Chapter 6, Etruscan and Roman Art: Elements and Media: Labeling” Quiz (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above and complete this brief labeling quiz in order to test your knowledge of Roman buildings and architectural techniques.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.