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ARTH303: Art of the Islamic World

Unit 5: The Art and Architecture of the Safavid (1501-1722), Ottoman (ca. 1299–1922), and Mughal (1526-1858) Empires   This unit focuses on the art and architecture of three later Islamic Empires: the Safavids, Ottomans, and Mughals.  It begins by focusing on Safavid city planning and manuscript illumination and then outlines major developments in Ottoman art and architecture. Then, we will examine the art and architecture of the Mughal Empire, focusing on the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, Shahjahanabad, the Taj Mahal, and Mughal miniatures. The unit concludes by concentrating on the role that trade and diplomacy between these Empires and Europe, Russia and China played in the development of Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal art and architecture.  After completing this unit, you should have a comprehensive understanding of the artistic and architectural traditions of the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires and the major cultural and visual exchanges that occurred between these three Islamic Empires, Europe, Russia, and China.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 35 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.1: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.6: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 5.6.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.6.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.6.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.6.4: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.6.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.8: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 5.8.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.8.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.8.3: 1.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Identify major building projects undertaken by the Safavids, Ottomans, and Mughals.
  • Explain major architectural and artistic developments under the Safavids, Ottomans, and Mughals.
  • Explain major architectural and visual exchanges that occurred between these three empires: Europe, Russia, and China.

5.1 Safavid Architecture and City Planning   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Safavid” Link: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Safavid” (HTML)
 
Instructions: First, read this page as an introduction to Safavid architecture and city planning. Then, click on the links labeled “Maidan-I Shah” “Qaysariya” “Chahar Bagh,” “Shah Mosque,” “Allahverdi Khan Bridge,” “Palace Complex at Ishafan,” “Chihil Sutun,” and “Hasht Behesht Palace.” After you have read each page, make sure to click on “View thumbnail images” at the top right-hand corner of each webpage to see diagrams and images of these structures.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2 Safavid Art   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Suzan Yalman’s “The Art of the Safavids Before 1600”; Marika Sarder’s “The Arts of Iran, 1600–1800”; and Francesca Leoni’s “The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp” Links: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Suzan Yalman’s “The Art of the Safavids Before 1600” (HTML); Marika Sarder’s “The Arts of Iran, 1600–1800” (HTML); and Francesca Leoni’s “The Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp” (HTML)
 
Instructions: These readings cover the topics outlined for sections 5.2.1-5.2.3 of this course.  Please read these pages as an introduction to the art of the Safavid Empire.  After you have read the text on each page, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of each webpage to see examples of Safavid art.  Click on each individual image, and read the accompanying text; complete this action for the images on each of the three pages linked above. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The British Museum’s “Shah ‘Abbas: The Remaking of Iran” Link: The British Museum’s “Shah ‘Abbas: The Remaking of Iran
     
    Instructions: Please click on each of the images and read their accompanying webpages in their entirety as an introduction to Safavid art during the reign of Shah ‘Abbas (1571–1618).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The British Museum: Sheila Canby’s “Two Portraits, Two Views” Link: The British Museum: Sheila Canby’s “Two Portraits, Two Views
     
    Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety, which discusses two portraits of Shah ‘Abbas (2:24 minutes).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.1 The Art of the Book   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Arts of the Book in the Islamic World, 1600-1800” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Arts of the Book in the Islamic World, 1600-1800” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text that explains how illustrated books were made in ateliers attached to the Safavid, Mughal, and Ottoman courts.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Guided Observation 3: Art of the Book: The Shahnama (Persian Book of Kings)" The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

5.2.2 Safavid Decorative Arts   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.2.  Focus on the webpages, “The Art of the Safavids Before 1600” and “The Arts of Iran, 1600–1800.”

5.2.3 Safavid Carpets and Textiles   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Carpets from the Islamic World, 1600-1800” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Carpets from the Islamic World, 1600-1800” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text that discusses how carpet making became a statewide industry under the Safavid, Mughal, and Ottoman Empires.  After you have finished reading, click on some of the images at the top of the page to see details of Safavid, Mughal, and Ottoman carpets.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3 Ottoman Architecture   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Ottoman” Link: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Ottoman” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text as an introduction to Ottoman architecture.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.1 Early Ottoman Architecture: Mehmed II’s Building Projects and the Topkapi Palace   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Fatih Complex” and “Topkapi Palace” Link: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Fatih Complex” (HTML) and “Topkapi Palace” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages.  When you are finished reading each page, click on the thumbnails at the top right to view images of the Fatih Complex and Topkapi Palace.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Victoria and Albert Museum’s “The Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey” Link: Victoria and Albert Museum’s “The Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey” (Quicktime Video)
     
    Instructions: Please watch this brief video about the Topkapi Palace in its entirety (2:48 minutes); note the ability to view the transcript of the video.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.2 The Royal Architect Sinan   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "The Royal Architect Sinan" The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)
  • Web Media: Saudi Aramco Magazine’s “A Virtual Walking Tour: The Suleymaniye Mosque” Link: Saudi Aramco Magazine’s “A Virtual Walking Tour: The Suleymaniye Mosque: Virtual Walking Tour” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Listening to the “Orientation” is optional but recommended to help you successfully navigate through this website.  After listening to the introduction, take a virtual walking tour with narration.  The entire tour takes around 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.3 Later Ottoman Architecture   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Later Ottomans and the Impact of Europe” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Later Ottomans and the Impact of Europe” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text as an introduction to later Ottoman art and architecture and its incorporation of European styles.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Nusretiye Mosque” and “Dolmabahçe Palace Complex” Links: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Nusretiye Mosque” (HTML) and “Dolmabahçe Palace Complex” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these two webpages about different structures that fuse elements of Ottoman and European architecture.  After you have read each webpage, make sure to click on “view thumbnail images” at the top right-hand corner to see diagrams and images of these structures.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4 Ottoman Art: Calligraphy, Miniatures, Ceramics, Textiles, and Carpets   - Web Media: The Walters Art Museum’s W.624: Five Poems (Quintet) Link: The Walters Art Museum’s W.624: Five Poems (Quintet) (Adobe Flash) 

 Instructions: Please take your time and look through this
magnificent illustrated copy of the *Khamsah* (*Quintet*) of Amir
Khusraw Dihlavi (d. 1325) that is believed to have been commissioned
by Emperor Akbar.  The manuscript bears the names of several
painters and illuminators and was written in nasta’liq script by the
famed Mughal calligrapher, Muhammad Husayn al-Kashmiri.  Make sure
to look at the borders around the text that are elaborately
decorated with animals, birds, geometric motifs, and humans hunting,
praying, reading, and doing other things.    

 Terms of Use: The webpage above is released under [Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode).
 It is attributed to TheDigitalWalters.org.
  • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Suzan Yalman’s “The Art of the Ottomans before 1600” and “The Age of Süleyman ‘The Magnificent’ (r. 1520–1566)”; Marika Sardar’s “The Art of the Ottomans after 1600” and “The Greater Ottoman Empire, 1600–1800” Links: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Suzan Yalman’s “The Art of the Ottomans before 1600” and “The Age of Süleyman ‘The Magnificent’ (r. 1520–1566)”; Marika Sardar’s “The Art of the Ottomans after 1600,” and “The Greater Ottoman Empire, 1600–1800
     
    Note:  All websites above are in HTML format.
     
    Instructions: Please read these pages about Ottoman art.  After you have read the text on each page, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of each webpage to see examples of Ottoman art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Click on each individual image, and read the accompanying text.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent” Link: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent”  (HTML)
     
    Please read this text about the Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent before listening to its accompanying podcast on iTunes, linked below.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent” Link: iTunes U: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent” (iTunes U)
     
    Also available in:
    Adobe Flash
    Mp3 or HTML Transcript
     
    Instructions: Listen to Podcast 30 about the Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent in the reading above.  The podcast is 13:51 minutes long.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 Overview of Pre-Mughal Islamic Art and Architecture in India   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "Art and Architecture of the Dehli Sultanate (1206-1526)" The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)
  • Reading: The Metropolitan Musuem of Art's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar's "Islamic Arts of the Deccan" Link: The Metropolitan Musuem of Art's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar's "Islamic Arts of the Deccan" (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the text about Islamic Art in the Deccan  After you have read the text, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of the webpage to see examples of Islamic Art from the Deccan in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Click on each individual image, and read the accompanying text.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6 Mughal Architecture   5.6.1 Humayun’s Tomb   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Mughal” and “Humayun’s Tomb” Links: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Building Style: Mughal” (HTML) and “Humayun Tomb” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages as an introduction to Mughal architecture and the tomb of Humayun (1508-1556), the second emperor of the Mughal Empire. After you have finished reading about the tomb, make sure to click on “View thumbnail images” at the top right-hand corner of each webpage to see diagrams and images of the tomb.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6.2 Fatehpur Sikri   - Reading: PBS: The Story of India’s “Fatehpur Sikri” Link: PBS: The Story of India’s “Fatehpur Sikri” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click on “Display All” above the top right corner of the photograph.  Read all of the sections of text that will then appear below the photograph and watch the two videos, “Emperor Akbar” and “Fatehpur Sikri.”  The “Fatehpur Sikri” video can be accessed from the hyperlink on the right margin.  To play the video “Emperor Akabar” scroll down the page and click on the image with the “play” symbol in the section titled “Emperor Akbar.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6.3 Shajahanabad’s Red Fort Complex   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Red Fort Complex” Link: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Red Fort Complex” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page about the Red Fort Complex constructed by Shah Jahan (1592-1666).  After you have finished reading about the complex, make sure to click on “view thumbnail images” at the top right-hand corner to see images of the complex.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6.4 Shajahanabad’s Jama Masjid   - Reading: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Friday Mosque of Old Dehli” Link: Archnet’s Digital Library: “Friday Mosque of Old Dehli” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this webpage about the Jama Masjid constructed by Shah Jahan.  After you have finished reading about the mosque, make sure to click on “view thumbnail images” at the top right-hand corner to see images of the mosque.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.6.5 The Taj Mahal   - Reading: PBS: The Story of India’s “Taj Mahal” Link: PBS: Story of India’s “Taj Mahal” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Click on “Display All” above the top right corner of the photograph.  Read all of the sections of text.  Then, click on the hyperlink for the “Taj Mahal” video on the right side of the webpage.  View this brief video (1:33 minutes).
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Boundless: “Architecture” Link: Boundless: “Architecture” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this article, which defines Mughal architecture and its history.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless. 

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco: Professor Catherine Asher’s “Visions of Paradise: The Tradition of the Taj Majal, Part I and II” Lectures Link: iTunes U: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco: Professor Catherine Asher’s “Visions of Paradise: The Tradition of the Taj Mahal, Part I and II” Lectures (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please view the entirety of Lectures 34 and 35 by Professor Catherine Asher from the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco’s “Passport to Asia: An Odyssey through Asian Art and History” lecture series.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.7 Mughal Art   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Islamic Art’s “Art of the Mughals before 1600” and Marika Sardar’s “Art of the Mughals after 1600” Links: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Islamic Art’s “Art of the Mughals before 1600” (HTML) and Marika Sardar’s “Art of the Mughals after 1600” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading covers the topics for sections 5.7.1-5.7.3 of this course.  Please read the text on both pages about Mughal Art before and after 1600.  After you have read the text on each page, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of the webpage to see examples of Mughal Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Click on each individual image, and read the accompanying text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.7.1 Mughal Miniatures   - Web Media: The Walters Art Museum’s W.658 Book on Navigation Link: The Walters Art Museum’s W.658: Book on Navigation (Adobe Flash) 

 Instructions: Please take your time and look through this
magnificent illustrated copy of Piri Reis’s (d. 1555) *Book on
Navigation,* originally dedicated to Sultan Süleyman I.  The book
was later revised and expanded and this manuscript was probably
completed in the late seventeenth century based on this later
version.  It includes a world map as well as more detailed maps of
the Mediterranean and surrounding areas.  
    
 Terms of Use: The webpage above is released under [Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode).
 It is attributed to TheDigitalWalters.org. 
  • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Arts of the Book in the Islamic World, 1600-1800” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “The Arts of the Book in the Islamic World, 1600-1800” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please re-read this text that explains how illustrated books were made in ateliers attached to the Safavid, Mughal, and Ottoman courts.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Miniature of a Mughal Prince” Link: BBC: A History of the World in 100 Objects: “Miniature of a Mughal Prince” (HTML and Mp3 Download)
     
    Also available in:
    Adobe Flash
    iTunes U (#19)
     
    Instructions: Please read this text and listen to the podcast about a Mughal miniature by clicking on “Listen to the Programme” in the right-hand corner of the page.  The podcast is 13:50 minutes long.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.7.2 Mughal Decorative Arts   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned beneath subunit 5.7.  Focus specifically on the webpage, “Art of the Mughals After 1600” and the objects, “Inkpot of Emperor Jahangir,” “Dagger,” “Flask in the Shape of a Mango,” and “Bowl and Dish” in the slideshow and their accompanying text.

5.7.3 Mughal Textiles   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Indian Textiles: Trade and Production” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Indian Textiles: Trade and Production” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text about Indian textiles.  After you have read the text on each page, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of the webpage to see examples of Indian textiles in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.8 Trade, Diplomacy, and Visual Exchange between the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires and Europe, Russia, and China   5.8.1 The Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires and Europe   - Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Europe and the Islamic World, 1600-1800” and Jennifer Meagher’s “Orientalism in Nineteenth Century Art” Links: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Marika Sardar’s “Europe and the Islamic World, 1600-1800” and Jennifer Meagher’s “Orientalism in Nineteenth Century Art
 
Note: All websites above are in HTML format.
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages as an introduction to the artistic exchanges among Europe and the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires.  After you have read the text on each page, click on “View Slideshow” at the top of each webpage to see examples of Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal, and European works of art.  Make sure to click on each image, and read the accompanying text.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Saudi Aramco World: Beth Houston’s “Fanciful Inlay” Link: Saudi Aramco World: Beth Houston’s “Fanciful Inlay” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this article that discusses Ottoman mother-of-pearl inlaid furniture and its popularity in Europe and the United States.  This article originally appeared on pages 32-39 of the July/August 1994 print edition of Saudi Aramco World.  Click here for images associated with this article.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above

  • Reading: The Victoria and Albert Museum’s “Europe & the Islamic Mediterranean AD 700–1600” Link: The Victoria and Albert Museum’s “Europe & the Islamic Mediterranean AD 700–1600
     
    Instructions: Please read this page in its entirety as an introduction to the artistic exchanges between the Europe and the Islamic Mediterranean from 700–1600.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.8.2 The Safavid and Ottoman Empires and Russia   - Reading: Smithsonian.com: Katy June-Freisen’s “Czar Treasures from the East” Link: Smithsonian.com: Katy June-Freisen’s “Czar Treasures from the East” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this short article about the exhibition, “The Tsars and the East: Gifts from Turkey and Iran in the Moscow Kremlin,” and the relationship between trade, diplomacy, and the arts in Russia and the Ottoman and Safavid Empires.  When you are finished, make sure to click on “View More Photos” to see more images from this exhibition.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.8.3 The Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal Empires and China   - Reading: The Asia Society: Imperial Elegance: Chinese Ceramics from the Asia Society’s Rockefeller Collection: “Beyond China” Link: The Asia Society: Imperial Elegance: Chinese Ceramics from the Asia Society’s Rockefeller Collection: “Beyond China” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this webpage about Chinese porcelains exported to the Middle East.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Louvre’s “Safavid Ceramics and Tiles” Link: The Louvre’s “Safavid Ceramics and Tiles” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this text that discusses the use of Chinese motifs in ceramic production during the Safavid Empire.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Saudi Aramco World: Cheryl Ward’s “The Sadana Islands Shipwreck: The Red Sea in Global Trade” Link: Saudi Aramco World: Cheryl Ward’s “The Sadana Islands Shipwreck: The Red Sea in Global Trade” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this text that discusses an Ottoman period shipwreck that contained Chinese porcelains.  This article originally appeared on pages 14-21 of the November/December 2000 print edition of Saudi Aramco World.  Click here to see the images associated with this article.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.