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ARTH210: American Art

Unit 7: Post-War America and the Art World: Abstract Expressionism to New Political Art, Stylistic Pluralism, Diversity   In the wake of a decimated Europe, post-war America prospered.  The Cold War with the Soviet Union (USSR) ensued.  Abstraction triumphed as the dominant mode of picture-making, but was challenged substantially by the emergence of Pop Art, which attempted to reconnect directly with modern American life.  Gradually, diverse representational forms made a come-back, influenced by “counter-cultural” politics, along with tendencies towards artistic expressions of gender and ethnic identity. 

7.1 Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism   Note: “Non-objective” abstraction on a super-sized scale became nearly a national style in America.  Much (but by no means all) of it was gestural and also known as “Action Painting.”  Until recently, a small number of artists (white; male) were seen as the embodiment of its essence, although it actually encompassed diverse sensibilities and intentions, including spiritual, emotional, and political ones.  An off-shoot known as Minimalism toned down the gesture and expressive color and focused on surface texture, shape, and light in both painting and sculpture.

  • Reading: Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art: “Abstract Expressionism” Link:  Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art: “Abstract Expressionism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Read through the entire entry on the background and main figures of the loose movement or style.  (Extensive links are provided; look at other material on Abstract Expressionism below and then perhaps return and explore additional links here.) 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: National Gallery of Art: “Mark Rothko” Link: National Gallery of Art: “Mark Rothko” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: View the entire presentation.  Rothko’s oeuvre moves from Surrealism to total abstraction focused on expansive planes of color.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Museum of Modern Art: “Abstract Expressionism New York” Link: Museum of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism New York (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Read the introduction and click the embedded link titled “view the video” in order to listen to curator Ann Temkin.  From the right hand column menu, choose “From the Curator: Franz Kline” and view the linked video (about 4 minutes).  Then return to exhibition homepage (above) and choose “Featured Works” (top menu).  Enlarge/view data on the eight works.  Each entry has links to other works by the artists represented.  View a few; choose the one whose work most immediately appeals to you for the assignment below.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s American Art Activity 8 Link: The Saylor Foundation’s American Art Activity 8 (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Pretend you are writing an art review (1 – 2 pages in length) for a one-person show by the artist you choose.  Describe the basic aesthetic of the work.  Try to assess what is engaging and interesting about it in terms of how the artist uses form (color; technique; etc.).  Do not use “first person” (i.e., “I like…”).  While reactions to abstract art focus on formal perceptions and emotional responses, think about whether any content is suggested based on the socio-political contexts of the era; comment briefly. 

  • Web Media: Museum of Modern Art: “Minimalism” Link: Museum of Modern Art: “Minimalism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the introduction and view the six linked images. (You can enlarge them.)
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Guggenheim Museum: “Minimalism” Link: Guggenheim Museum: “Minimalism” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the introduction and view the 17 images. (You can enlarge them and read notes on each.)
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The New Yorker: Peter Schjeldahl’s “Finish Fetish” Link: The New Yorker: Peter Schjeldahl’s “Finish Fetish” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: View this presentation on a New York exhibition of California Minimalists from The New Yorker, January 25, 2010 (4 minutes).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 Pop Art and Other Figurative Styles   Note: Some artists were alienated by abstraction’s lack of connection to everyday life.  Consumer products, comic book heroes, movie stars, and front page news became the subjects of Pop Art.  Photorealist painting, which imitated photographic effects in painstaking detail, was an off-shoot of the movement.  This genre looked back to the early trompe l’oeil traditions we saw earlier in this course.  These artists used tracing and photographic projection to create compositions in ways that pre-figure digital image programs like Photoshop.  Looser representational styles harking back to earlier Realism eventually made a comeback.  

  • Web Media: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Nan Rosenthal’s "Jasper Johns (Born 1930)" Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Nan Rosenthal’s "Jasper Johns (Born 1930)" (HTML)

    Instructions: Johns is transitional, bridging the gap between Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art.  His extended series of American flags has been interpreted variously. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Museum of Modern Art: “Andy Warhol’s Gold Marilyn Monroe, 1962” Link: Museum of Modern Art: “Andy Warhol’s Gold Marilyn Monroe, 1962” (HTML)
     
    Also available in:
    MP3
     
    Instructions: View the image/entry and listen to audio link at lower left (about 2 minutes).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Pop Art” Link: Wikipedia’s “Pop Art” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this overview of “Pop Art.”
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Museum of Modern Art: “Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962” Link: Museum of Modern Art: “Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962”  (Adobe Flash)

    Also available in:

    MP3
     
    Instructions: View the image/entry and listen to audio link at lower left (about 2 minutes).

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: “About Andy Warhol” Link: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: “About Andy Warhol” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    M4a (Audio)
     
    Instructions: Listen to this audio clip on Any Warhol (about 1 minute).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Roy Lichtenstein Foundation Website Link: Roy Lichtenstein Foundation Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Click on “Enter,” and then, from left menu, choose “Art.”  From the timeline at top of page, click on several of the years between 1960s and 1970s for illustrations of his work.  (Don’t worry about the text of the detailed timeline.)  Then, return to the homepage and click on “Current and Upcoming Exhibitions” (in the left hand side menu) for installation shots and varied thematic works.   Back on the homepage, choose “Read Lichtenstein Articles” and click on and read the “Special Report: The Story of Pop!” (Newsweek, April 25, 1966).  Continue to browse as interested.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Whitney Museum of American Art, “Oldenburg” (collection search results) Link: Whitney Museum of American Art, “Oldenburg” (HTML & Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: On this page are four examples of early Pop sculpture by Claes Oldenburg, and one sketch for a later large sculpture in collaboration with the artist’s wife, Coosje van Bruggen.  Click each image to enlarge and view.  Then scroll down the main page to the section, “Watch and Listen”; view two short videos: “Installation of Claes Oldenburg’s Giant BLT,” and “Claes Oldenburg discusses Ice Bag-C.”  

    Optional: third video on conservation of Ice Bag-C.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Photorealism” Link: Wikipedia’s “Photorealism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this summary of “Photorealism.”
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Deutsch-Guggenheim: “Picturing America: Photorealism in the 1970s” Link: Deutsch-Guggenheim: “Picturing America: Photorealism in the 1970s” (HTML)
               
    Instructions: Explore the above exhibition.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Deutschebankgroup, Vernissage: “Picturing America: Photorealism in the 1970s” Link: YouTube: Deutschebankgroup, Vernissage: “Picturing America: Photorealism in the 1970s” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: View this clip, which includes comments by the curator and artists in the exhibition (about 7 minutes).  For more information on photorealism, visit:
     

    • Artnet Magazine: Donald Kuspit’s “The Real in Photorealism” (HTML)
      Note: This is a December 22, 2009 art review with illustrations.
       
      -Art Register Press: Virginia Anne Bonito’s Don Eddy:  The Resonance of Realism in the Art of Post War America (HTML)
      Note: In this art history monograph published for the internet by ArtregisterPress.com, leading photorealist Don Eddy provides an extensive interpretation of various works.  Eddy creates layered iconography with photorealist techniques. 
       
      -Saatchi Gallery: “Duane Hanson” (HTML)
      Note: This webpage introduces Duane Hanson, a photorealist sculptor of “everyday” Americans.
       
      By the 1980s, artists working in figurative style (not the mechanically-inspired “super-illusionism” of the Photorealists) were included under the umbrella of “Contemporary American Realism.”  Do a web search for a few images of work by the following artists: Alex Katz, Janet Fish, Jane Freilicher, Alice Neel, Philip Pearlstein, and Wayne Thiebaud.
       
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Feminist, Conceptual and Earth Art   Note: The National Organization of Women (NOW) was founded in 1966.  Women artists drew attention to gender inequities in career opportunities by challenging what they considered the chauvinistic standards in place throughout the entire history of Western art with blunt imagery and non-traditional techniques (such as fabric-based craft).  Conceptual art, which privileged idea over execution, was ultimately rooted in early European experiments, but flourished in the context of American freedom of speech.  Monumental art in site-specific landscapes and urban environments, as well as comprehensive gallery installations (rather than displays of individual portable works), were the climatic legacy of Abstract Expressionism.  

In 1971, art historian Linda Nochlin published an article entitled, “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” (Artnews, January 1971), which was crucial to the emergence of “Feminist” art and art history. Conduct a web search for a reprint of the full text or excerpts.

  • Web Media: Brooklyn Museum: “Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974-1979” Link: Brooklyn Museum: “Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974-1979” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Read the introduction and click the link at right labeled “Website.”  From the left hand side menu, click on “Components of the Dinner Party”; view all sections/images.  Back on the previous Website page, read the “Curatorial Overview,” accessible via the menu on the left.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The Woman’s Building Website Link: The Woman’s Building Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions: From the menu on the left, select “History” and read the linked essay.  At the bottom of the page, click on the link to read the “Photoessay” by Terry Wolverton (2003).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Hannah Wilke Collection and Archive Link: Hannah Wilke Collection and Archive (HTML)
     
    Instructions: View the linked selection of Hannah Wilke’s “radical” feminist art in a variety of mediums.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: hannahwilke.com: Excerpts from Writings Link: hannahwilke.com: “ Excerpts from Writings” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these excerpts from Wilke’s writings and spend some time browsing the links listed on the left-hand side of the webpage.  Wilke’s works were provocative in their open sexuality, and the ways in which she drew upon her own body – from its youthful beauty through the ravages of cancer – broke new conceptual and performative ground.
     
    Expect to spend approximately 30 minutes reading Wilke’s writings and browsing the site.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: feldmangallery.com: Amelia Jones’s “Everybody Dies…Even the Gorgeous: Resurrecting the Work of Hannah Wilke” Link: feldmangallery.com: Amelia Jones’s “Everybody Dies…Even the Gorgeous: Resurrecting the Work of Hannah Wilke”  (HTML)

    Instructions: Scroll partway down the webpage to the year 2003 and click on Jones’s article.  The link will open a .pdf of the text.  Consider the ways in which Wilke’s art intersects with Body Art, Feminism, and Performance and the gendered nature of her reception during the 1960s and ‘70s.  In which ways is her career emblematic (or not) of the challenges facing female artists during this time?
     
    Expect to spend approximately 30 minutes on this reading.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Betye Saar” Link:  Wikipedia’s “Betye Saar” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Several African American women artists were important in the spread of feminist-inspired art, although they did not generally receive “mainstream” attention until the 1980s.  Betye Saar began her career in California by creating a now iconic “assemblage” that has proved influential in the work of many younger artists.  See the page above for links for further study. (Saar continues to be prolific, with frequent exhibitions in all media.)
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: ArtLex Art Dictionary: “Conceptual Art” Link: ArtLex Art Dictionary: “Conceptual Art” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the linked entry above.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Guggenheim Museum: “The Panza Collection” Link: Guggenheim Museum: “The Panza Collection” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: This presentation of images and entries focuses on American Minimal and Conceptual artists.  Review the Minimalist artists (above) and focus on the Conceptual artists Bruce Nauman (page 2) and Lawrence Weiner (page 3). 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Estate of Robert Smithson Website Link: Estate of Robert Smithson Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  View the images on this site, which present perhaps the most renowned site-specific “earth work” in the United States.  Click on the link at bottom of the page in order to read an article by Melissa Sanford that discusses issues with upkeep/preservation.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4 Post-Modernism Pluralism   Note: Steel-frame construction allowed for the rise of “glass towers” that filled the urban landscape in the post-war years, coinciding with total abstraction and, eventually, Minimalism.  By the late 1970s, however, architects were returning to earlier ornamentation to counter the cold geometry of high modernism; in this context, “postmodern,” as an aesthetic term, was first popularized.  It has come to signify the gradual move away from stylistic, media, and other strict, qualitative aesthetic precepts and designations.  Painters began to appropriate historical styles as well as specific works of art in new ways.  Some focused on the expression of racial, ethnic, and gender identities that had been previously denied by the mainstream. 

  • Reading: Wikipedia’s “Philip Johnson” Link: Wikipedia’s “Philip Johnson” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entry on Philip Johnson, who is likely the most acclaimed American architect of the postwar 20th century.  Scroll down to “Contents” and choose “The Seagram Building.”   Then click on the hyperlink in the text to view a “high modern” skyscraper of the 1950s (Johnson collaborated here with a mentor).  Back at the “Johnson” homepage, click on “Contents” and then “Later Buildings” to read a description and view an image of “The Sony Building.”  Note the roofline design, which he borrowed from earlier architectural ornament.  This has been discussed as a “postmodern” design.  A more extreme example is the “Piazza d’Italia” in New Orleans; view it on Wikipedia’s entry on the building.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Faith Ringgold Website Link: Faith Ringgold Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions: In painting and sculpture, “postmodernism” includes both borrowing from the past (whether in terms of subject or style) and going beyond European-based criteria for definitions of “modernity” in art, which focus on “pure” abstraction.  The fact that Pop and Photorealism were “modern” offered other ideas, as well.  Postmodernism is most often characterized by specific expressions of ethnic, racial and gender identities previously “hidden” in modernist styles.  Mixed media and new media based on new technologies all made for an unprecedented, pluralistic scene by the 1980s.  The Faith Ringgold website linked above is the first in a series of websites featuring a number of diverse (in terms of background, styles, and content) artists, who could be placed under this umbrella.
    On the Faith Ringgold site, scroll down to “Images”; click on and begin with “1991,” which includes her best-known works.  These works feature her “signature” style, making use of a medium she developed that combines quilting (in reference to folk traditions among African American women) and painting.  In several series, she appropriates European “modernist” art in her new form to create new messages.  Like Saar (above), Ringgold did important feminist work in the late 1960s and 1970s (some can be viewed at this site), and is still working and exhibiting prolifically.  (Please note that some of the “enlargement” links on the site may not work; however, most images as provided are adequate for an introduction.)
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Arthur Rogers Gallery: Robert Colescott Link: Arthur Rogers Gallery: Robert Colescott (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Beginning in the 1970s, Colescott relied heavily on appropriating compositions and subjects from art-historical masterpieces to create satiric paintings about the exclusion of African Americans from art history and history more generally.  He adopted a purposefully crude style influenced by comics and European “primitivism.”  Later, he expanded his oeuvre to include large-scale paintings jam-packed with darkly humorous iconography related to postcolonial reinterpretations of history, as well as political commentary on continuing racial tensions, crime, and consumerism engulfing American society. 
               
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Americana: Journal of American Popular Culture: Jody B. Cutler’s “Art Revolution: Politics and Pop in the Robert Colescott Painting George Washington Carver Crossing the Delaware” Link: Americana: Journal of American Popular Culture: Jody B. Cutler’s “Art Revolution: Politics and Pop in the Robert Colescott Painting George Washington Carver Crossing the Delaware (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Read the linked article (2010).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Artnet.com: Peter Schjeldahl’s “The Social Comedian” Link: Artnet.com: Peter Schjeldahl’s “The Social Comedian” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this exhibition review, taking a look at the embedded images (1998).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The Broad Art Foundation: “Julian Schnabel” Link: The Broad Art Foundation: “Julian Schnabel” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Schnabel was perhaps the first major American “art star” of the postmodern era.  He broke onto the scene in the early 1980s with paintings that brought back the intuitive brushwork of the Abstract Expressionists and figuration related to European Expressionist style of the 19th century.  His imagery remains enigmatic, but he has also done portraits and narrative works harking back to art history and used collage elements for bold, physical effects in much of his work.  He is often categorized as a “Neo-Expressionist.”  Visit the website above for some good examples of his work.
               
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Saatchi Gallery: “David Salle” Link: Saatchi Gallery: “David Salle” (HTML and Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Salle is a contemporary of Schnabel who broke onto the American art scene around the same time.  Borrowing from Photorealism, Salle expresses the flux of “visual culture” characteristic of “postmodern” at the start of the electronic revolution.  His juxtapositions of seemingly unrelated images are like puzzles; the question of how and whether they add up to particular meanings is ambiguous.  
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Museum of Modern Art: “David Hammons” Link: Museum of Modern Art: “David Hammons” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above for an introduction and several images of works by Hammons in the MOMA’s collection.  Hammons is a multi-media artist, with Conceptual underpinnings.  Several of his “breakthrough” works in the 1980s were site-specific projects in New York that made use of playground basketball hoops.  Good reproductions of one of them are posted on this Visual Resources webpage, published by Franklin & Marshall College.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Barbara Kruger Website and Cindy Sherman Website Links: Barbara Kruger Website (HTML) and Cindy Sherman Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions: These photography-based artists are sometimes referred to as “second generation feminists”—especially Kruger, who brings her background in advertising to the fine art world, using language as a kind of new iconography.  Sherman has used herself in virtually all of her work for several decades, though she always appears in different disguises and contexts, obscuring and complicating the notion of self-portraiture.  Visit the sites above to review their work.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: PBS: “Art 21: Peon Osorio” Link: PBS: “Art 21: Pepon Osorio” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The website above presents an abundance of information on renowned Puerto Rican artist Pepon Osorio, who works in mixed media, focusing on full-scale installations.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Keith Haring Foundation Website Link: Keith Haring Foundation Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Visit the website above for information on Keith Haring, who is famous for bringing graffiti art into the international “fine art” world through his distinctive linear style.  His works often focus on gay politics and activism (the artist died of AIDS at the age of 31).
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The Brooklyn Museum: “Basquiat” Link: The Brooklyn Museum: Basquiat(HTML)
     
    Instructions: Like Haring, Jean-Michel Basquiat began as a street-graffiti artist, with a particularly raw style.  He was “discovered” by a prominent New York art dealer and became internationally famous before his tragic death at the age of 27.  He hedged his public identity as a mainstream Neo-expressionist and African American artist (of Caribbean heritage), bringing his unique concerns into the elite art world.  Read about him and his work on the linked page above.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: The Aids Quilt Website Link: The Aids Quilt Website (HTML)
     
    Instructions: The Aids Quilt is a unique, ongoing, and public American art project, begun in 1987 and with headquarters in Atlanta, GA.  Anyone may contribute and portions are continually exhibited throughout the country.  See the history and images linked above.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.5 Case Studies: Public Monuments and Sculpture   Note: In a country predicated on government and taxation by the people, decisions about the art that will be publicly sponsored and displayed are complicated and widely debated, with tensions often arising between  professionals in the visual arts and the lay public.  A look at two cases, Richard Serra’s “Tilted Arc for Foley Square,” New York City (1981), and Maya Lin’s “Viet Nam Veterans Memorial” for the National Mall in Washington, D.C. (1982) give some insight into the nature of these ongoing negotiations as they arise.  (Many additional photographs of these projects can be found via web searches.)

  • Web Media: WUST TV/PBS: “Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, 1981”; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: Titled Arc; Wikipedia: “Tilted Arc” Link: WUST TV/PBS: “Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, 1981” (HTML) and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: Titled Arc; (Adobe Flash) Wikipedia: “Tilted Arc” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Explore the links above for information about Serra’s work.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Bluffton College: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial; American Architecture: “Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial”; Wikipedia: “Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial” Link: Bluffton College: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial;(HTML) American Architecture: “Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial”; (HTML) Wikipedia: “Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Explore the linked material above for information on the Vietnam Veterans’ memorial.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.