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ARTH206: The Italian Proto-Renaissance To Mannerism

  • Unit 1: Early Renaissance: The Proto-Renaissance  

    In mid- to late-thirteenth century Italy, elements of a new understanding of representation began to emerge within Christian art. Though many medieval conventions survived into the fourteenth century, and the “International Gothic Style,” a decorative and “two-dimensional” form of representation, was in vogue, some artists began to incorporate their observations of physical reality and ancient Greek and Roman art into their work. The term “Proto-Renaissance” refers to this artistic period spanning the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Italy. In this unit, we will first study the social and historical context that served as a backdrop to these developments as well as the medieval artistic traditions within which these changes took place. We will then explore the transformations that took place in the art of the Italian fourteenth century.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory

    This unit will take approximately 20 hours to complete.

    ☐ Subunit 1.1: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.2: 5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.3: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.4: 3 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.5: 4 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.6: 4 hours

    Unit1 Learning Outcomes

    Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

    • Define the terms “Renaissance” and “Proto-Renaissance.”
    • Identify the modes of expression of the Proto-Renaissance in the art of certain regions in Italy.
    • Identify the Byzantine and Gothic influences in late-thirteenth and fourteenth century Italy.
    • Explain how specific historical contexts, events, and figures affected Italian Proto-Renaissance art.
    • Recognize the individual style and interests of important artists of the Proto-Renaissance.
    • Recognize important artworks of the Italian Proto-Renaissance and describe them in terms of their form, content, and general history of their creation.
    • Assess the role of art and artists during the Proto-Renaissance in Italy.
    • Discuss specific artistic techniques used during the Proto-Renaissance in Italy.
  • 1.1 Italy and the Renaissance  

  • 1.1.1 Italy  

    • Reading: Connexions: Albert Van Helden’s “Italy”

      Link: Connexions: Albert Van Helden’s “Italy” (PDF)

      Also available in:
      HTML and Epub

      Instructions: Please read this short article for some historical background on Italy.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed by Albert Van Helden under a Creative Commons Attribution License (HTML): you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it.

  • 1.1.2 The Italian Renaissance  

    • Lecture: iTunes U: Front Range Community College: Anthony J. Heideman’s “The Italian Renaissance”

      Link: iTunes U: Front Range Community College: Anthony J. Heideman’s “The Italian Renaissance” (iTunes U)

      Instructions: Please scroll down to track 32 of this series, titled “The Italian Renaissance” and click on “Get” button to launch the lecture.  Please listen to this lecture and take notes in order to get a feel for some of the more prominent characteristics of Italian Renaissance society. Understanding what the Renaissance is will enable us to subsequently better situate Renaissance art within a specific social and historical context. Around the 17-minute mark, Anthony Heideman starts referencing the city-states of Italy during the Renaissance.  Please view the map of Renaissance Italy, linked in this subunit, while you listen to that part of his discussion.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org’s “Florence in the Early Renaissance” Map

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Florence in the Early Renaissance” Map (PDF)

      Instructions: Simply view the map on this webpage to better locate the city-states Anthony Heideman evokes in his lecture. At this time, you do not need to read the article as you will come back to this reading later in section 2.1.4 of this course.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike license (HTML): you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 1.2 Italy in the Proto-Renaissance  

  • 1.2.1 Historical Background: Timeline, the Black Death  

    • Reading: Connexions: Jack E. Maxfield’s “A Comprehensive Outline of World History: Europe: 1201 to 1300” and “A Comprehensive Outline of World History: Europe: 1301 to 1400”

      Links: Connexions: Jack E. Maxfield’s “A Comprehensive Outline of World History: Europe: 1201 to 1300” (PDF) and “A Comprehensive Outline of World History: Europe: 1301 to 1400” (PDF)

      Also available in: (1201 to 1300)
      HTML and Epub

      Also available in: (1301 to 1400)
      HTML and Epub

      Instructions: Please read these two passages in order to get a sense for the historical context surrounding the Proto-Renaissance in Italy.  While you should focus most on the passages treating Italy, it is recommended that you read the pages in their entirety to get a sense for parallel historical developments throughout Europe.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed by Jack E. Maxfield under a Creative Commons Attribution License (HTML): you may share and adapt the work under the condition that you correctly attribute it.

  • 1.2.2 City-States and Courts  

    • Reading: University of Calgary: The Applied History Research Group’s “The End of Europe’s Middle Ages: Italy’s City-States”

      Link: University of Calgary: The Applied History Research Group’s “The End of Europe’s Middle Ages: Italy’s City-States” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article to get a sense for the political organization of Italy in the early stages of the Renaissance.   Understanding the political make-up of Italy will subsequently help you get a better grasp on the effects of the papacy as well as competition between courts and city-states on art production during the Renaissance in Italy.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.2.3 The Church, Francis of Assisi, and the Mendicant Orders  

    • Reading: University of Calgary: The Applied History Research Group’s “The End of Europe’s Middle Ages: The Church”

      Link: University of Calgary: The Applied History Research Group’s “The End of Europe’s Middle Ages: The Church” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the first three paragraphs of this article to get a sense for the state of the Church in Italy during the fourteenth century.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Annie Labatt and Charlotte Appleyard’s “Mendicant Orders in the Medieval World”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Annie Labatt and Charlotte Appleyard’s “Mendicant Orders in the Medieval World” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article to get a sense for what the mendicant orders were in the Middle Ages. Please also click on the thumbnail images located above the text to view the artworks and their captions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: Virginia Tech: David Burr's Translation of "The Rule of the Franciscan Order" and Ellesmere Chaucer's and Gioto di Bondone's illustrations of Saint Francis.

      Link: Virginia Tech: David Burr's Translation of "The Rule of the Franciscan Order" (PDF) and Ellesmere Chaucer's (PDF) and Gioto di Bondone's (PDF) illustrations of Saint Francis.

      Instructions: Please view the images of Giotto’s and Chaucer's depiction of the Life of Saint Francis of Assisi to get a sense for the importance of the orders as they related to society and the arts. Then read “The Rule of the Franciscan Order” to understand the raison d’être of the order.

      Terms of Use: David Burr's translation of "The Rules of the Franciscan Order" is used under academic and noncommercial permission. The images above are in the public domain. 

    • Reading: Virginia Tech: David Burr’s Translation of Thomas of Celano’s “First and Second Lives of Saint Francis”

      Link: Virginia Tech: David Burr’s Translation of Thomas of Celano’s “First and Second Lives of Saint Francis” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read this work on Saint Francis’ early life, written in its original version by a thirteenth-century Franciscan friar. Look at the frescoes of the “Saint Francis Cycle in the Upper Church of Assisi,” available through the web media link in this subunit, to get a better feel for the way in which important figures of the mendicant orders were portrayed in art during the era of the Proto-Renaissance.
       
      Terms of Use: David Burr's translation of "First and Second Lives of Saint Francis" is used under academic and noncommercial permission.

    • Web Media: Wikimedia Commons: “Saint Francis Cycle in the Upper Church of San Francesco at Assisi”

      Link: Wikimedia Commons: “Saint Francis Cycle in the Upper Church of San Francesco at Assisi” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please view this cycle of frescoes in conjunction with the reading of the “First and Second Lives of Saint Francis” by Thomas of Celano. This cycle of frescoes, depicting the life of Saint Francis of Assisi, was painted by Giotto, an important Proto-Renaissance painter.

      Terms of Use: The text on the webpage above is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License (HTML): you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, and, in the case that you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license. You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • 1.2.4 Humanism  

    • Reading: Robert Baldwin’s Social History of Art: “Humanism and the Early Italian Renaissance”

      Link: Robert Baldwin’s Social History of Art: “Humanism and the Early Italian Renaissance” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above. Please read the article “Baldwin, Renaissance Humanism, an Overview.” Take careful notes on the meaning, context of emergence, and modes of expression of Humanism in the Early Renaissance.

      Terms of Use: The resource above is hosted with the kind permission of Robert Baldwin. You can view his original document on his site here.

  • 1.3 Art in the Proto-Renaissance: Overview  

  • 1.4 Medieval Artistic Traditions and the “International Gothic style” in the Proto-Renaissance  

  • 1.4.1 The Gothic Influence in Architecture  

    • Web Media: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Milan, Italy: Milan Cathedral”

      Link: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Milan, Italy: Milan Cathedral” (PDF)

      Instructions: Carefully view all the images of the cathedral and its reliefs as well as Mary Ann Sullivan’s text.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by Mary Ann Sullivan. It can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).

  • 1.4.2 The Gothic and Byzantine Influences in Painting  

    • Web Media: The National Gallery of Art: “Tour: Byzantine Art and Painting in Italy during the 1200s and 1300s”

      Link: The National Gallery of Art: “Tour: Byzantine Art and Painting in Italy during the 1200s and 1300s” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read the article entitled “Overview.” Then, click on “Start Tour” and “Continue Tour” (at the bottom of each webpage) to view the images and read the corresponding text. Alternatively, to access this material you may click on the individual thumbnails for each image.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jennifer Meagher’s “Italian Painting of the Later Middle Ages”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Jennifer Meagher’s “Italian Painting of the Later Middle Ages” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article to get a feel for the way Byzantine and medieval artistic traditions served as the backdrop for the beginning of the development of Renaissance art, at first represented by artists such as Giotto di Bondone. Please also click on the thumbnail images located above the text and view the artworks and their captions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.4.3 The “International Gothic Style”  

    • Reading: Robert Baldwin’s Social History of Art: “Gentile da Fabriano’s ‘Adoration of the Magi’”

      Link: Robert Baldwin’s Social History of Art: “Gentile da Fabriano’s ‘Adoration of the Magi’” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage linked above. Please read the article “Baldwin, Gentile da Fabriano’s ‘Adoration of the Magi.’” The article discusses an artwork by Fabriano made in the International Gothic Style. It explores its form and content within the broad historical and social context the artwork was made in. Please view the artwork, “The Adoration of the Magi,” by going to the link below.

      Terms of Use: The resource above is hosted with the kind permission of Robert Baldwin. You can view his original document on his site here.

    • Web Media: Gentile da Fabriano’s "Adoration of the Magi"

      Link: Gentile da Fabriano’s “Adoration of the Magi” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please view the artwork linked above while reading Robert Baldwin’s article.

      Terns of Use: This resource is in the public domain. 

  • 1.5 Transformations in Artistic Practices: Florence  

    • Reading: Connexions: Albert Van Helden’s “Florence and Tuscany”

      Link: Connexions: Albert Van Helden’s “Florence and Tuscany” (PDF)

      Also available in:
      HTML and Epub

      Instructions: Please read this short article for some background on Florence and Tuscany.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed by Albert Van Helden under a Creative Commons Attribution License (HTML): you may share and adapt the work under the condition that you correctly attribute it.

  • 1.5.1 The City  

    • Reading: Washington University: Mary R. O’Neil’s “History of Florence 12th-14th Century”

      Link: Washington University: Mary R. O’Neil’s “History of Florence 12th-14th Century” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the webpage to get a sense for the social and historical circumstances that shaped the development and building of Florence in the centuries leading up to the Renaissance.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above. 

  • 1.5.2 Architecture  

    • Reading: University of California at Santa Cruz: Professor Allen Langdale’s “City Tours Page: Florence”

      Link: University of California at Santa Cruz: Professor Allen Langdale’s “City Tours Page: Florence” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this webpage. When you have read the first page, proceed to read the three following ones as well. Make sure to go to the provided links and view all the images carefully.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.5.3 Sculpture: Andrea Pisano  

    • Web Media: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Florence, Italy: Reliefs, South Doors, Florence Baptistry”

      Link: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Florence, Italy: Reliefs, South Doors, Florence Baptistry” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please carefully view all the images of the reliefs as well as Mary Ann Sullivan’s text on this page.

      Terms of Use: Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by Mary Ann Sullivan. It can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org’s “Andrea Pisano’s Reliefs on the Campanile in Florence”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Andrea Pisano’s Reliefs on the Campanile in Florence” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety (approximately 6 minutes). In this video, speakers Dr. David Drogin and Dr. Beth Harris discuss a relief sculpture by Andrea Pisano. Take notes on the naturalistic and classicizing elements of the artwork as well as its subject-matter. Also take notes on discussion of the role of the artist in Pisano’s time.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.

  • 1.5.4 Cimabue, Between Tradition and Innovation  

    • Reading: The Louvre Museum’s “The Madonna and Child in Majesty Surrounded by Angels”

      Link: The Louvre Museum’s “The Madonna and Child in Majesty Surrounded by Angels” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please view the image up close and take notes on its formal elements. Read the Louvre Museum text and consider the following questions. Which formal elements of art might have been inherited from the Byzantine artistic tradition? Which formal elements break with the Byzantine artistic tradition?

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the image and the text displayed on the above webpage.

  • 1.5.5 Giotto: Saints and Humanity  

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org: “1300 - 1400 Proto-Renaissance”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: “1300 - 1400 Proto-Renaissance” (YouTube)

      Also available in:
      HTML

      Instructions: Watch this video (11 minutes).  In this video, speakers Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker compare and contrast a painting by Cimabue with a painting by Giotto. Take notes on the stylistic differences between the two artworks and how they relate to the general evolution of art in the period of the Proto-Renaissance. What shifts in the use of pictorial conventions does Giotto’s painting illustrate? 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.The original version can be found here (Youtube). 

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org's: “Giotto’s The Lamentation”

      Link: SmartHistory.org's: “Giotto’s The Lamentation” (YouTube) and "Giotto's The Lamentation Article" (PDF).

      Instructions: Please watch this video, with speakers Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, in its entirety (approximately 7 minutes). Also, read the accompanying article on one of Giotto’s masterpieces, The Lamentation. Take notes on the characteristics of the painting that differentiate it from the medieval tradition and on the elements of Giotto’s humanism manifest in this representation.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike license. It is attributed to SmartHistory.org and the original version can be found here.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: “Giotto’s Epiphany”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 1.6 Transformations in Artistic Practices: Siena  

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: “Sienese Painting”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: “Sienese Painting” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please follow the link to complete the introductory reading on painting in Siena. This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.  

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation: ducciodibuoninsegna.org’s “Biography”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation: ducciodibuoninsegna.org’s “Biography” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please follow the link to read a brief biography of Duccio di Buoninsegna, one of Siena’s most important early Renaissance painters. This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.  

      Terms of Use: This reading is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported license (HTML). The reading is attributed to ducciodibuoninsegna.org and the original version can be found here (HTML).

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org’s “Sienese Art: Duccio, Martini, and Lorenzetti”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Sienese Art: “Duccio, Martini, and Lorenzetti” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Watch the video (5:14) for a discussion of Siena’s three most important painters of the early Renaissance. 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org’s “Duccio, The Rucellai Madonna, 1285 - 86”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Duccio, The Rucellai Madonna, 1285 - 86” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch the video (4:16) for a discussion of one of Duccio’s most influential paintings.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org’s “Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, 1342”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, 1342” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch the video (2:27) for a discussion of one of Duccio’s most influential paintings.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org’s “Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Watch the video (4:34) for a discussion of one of Simone Martini’s most influential paintings.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.

  • 1.6.1 Architecture  

    • Web Media: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Siena, Italy: The Duomo of Santa Maria dell’ Assunta”

      Link: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Siena, Italy: The Duomo of Santa Maria dell’ Assunta” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please carefully view all the images of the Duomo and its reliefs and read Mary Ann Sullivan’s text.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by Mary Ann Sullivan. It can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).

    • Web Media: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Siena, Italy: The Palazzo Pubblico, Piazza del Campo”

      Link: Bluffton University: Mary Ann Sullivan’s “Index of Art Historical Sites: Siena, Italy: The Palazzo Pubblico, Piazza del Campo” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please carefully view the images of the Palazzo Pubblico, and read Mary Ann Sullivan’s captions.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by Mary Ann Sullivan. It can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).

  • 1.6.2 Painting  

    • Web Media: The National Gallery of Art: “Tour: Painting in Siena in the 14th and Early 15th Centuries”

      Link: The National Gallery of Art: “Tour: Painting in Siena in the 14th and Early 15th Centuries” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read the article entitled “Overview.” Then, click on “Start Tour” and “Continue Tour” (at the bottom of each webpage) to view the images and read the corresponding text. Alternatively, to access this material you may click on the individual thumbnails for each image.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Keith Christiansen’s “Sienese Painting”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Keith Christiansen’s “Sienese Painting” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the article for an introduction to the art of Siena that focuses on fourteenth century painting. Please also click on the thumbnail images located above the text and view the artworks and their captions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org's: “Sienese Art: Duccio, Martini, and Lorenzetti”

      Link: SmartHistory.org's: “Sienese Art: Duccio, Martini, and Lorenzetti” (YouTube) and “Sienese Art: Duccio, Martini and Lorenzetti Article” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please watch this video, with speakers Dr. David Drogin and Dr. Beth Harris, in its entirety (about 5 minutes). Also, read the accompanying article to get a sense for the Sienese style of art during the Proto-Renaissance. Take notes on the characteristics of the style used in Siena to represent the sacred and other-worldly as well as the style used to represent more secular topics. Take visual elements such as line and space into consideration when you take notes. 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License. It is attributed to SmartHistory. The original article can be found here.

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org's: “Duccio’s Madonna and Child”

      Link: SmartHistory.org's: “Duccio’s Madonna and Child” (YouTube) and “Duccio's Madonna and Child Article” (PDF)

      Instructions: Watch this video (about 5 minutes) in its entirety, and read the accompanying article. In this video, speakers Dr. David Dorgin and Dr. Beth Harris discuss a painting by Duccio. Take notes on the characteristics of the painting that make it a transitional piece between Medieval and Renaissance art, its “other-worldly” characteristics and its realistic characteristics. Also, pay attention to discussion of the piece’s function.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License. It is attributed to SmartHistory. The original version can be found here.

    • Web Media: iTunes U: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “Duccio di Buoninsegna’s Madonna and Child”

      Link: iTunes U: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “Duccio di Buoninsegna’s Madonna and Child” (iTunes U)

      Instructions: Please scroll down to track 2 of this series, entitled “Duccio di Buoninsegna’s Madonna and Child.” Proceed to watch this video while taking notes on the painting’s important characteristics.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.7 The Pisanos in Pisa  

    • Lecture: SmartHistory.org's: “Pisa, Nicola and Giovanni Pisano”

      Link: SmartHistory.org's: “Pisa, Nicola and Giovanni Pisano” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety (approximately 14 minutes). In this video, Dr. David Drogin and Dr. Beth Harris discuss reliefs by the Pisanos. Make sure to take careful notes on the artworks’ stylistic elements as well as their iconographies.  

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License.