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ARTH202: Art of Ancient Greece and Rome

  • Unit 2: Greek Art: Classical Art, 480-323 B.C.  

    The period that produced what we now term “Greek Classical art” began around 480 B.C., with the end of the Persian invasions of Greece. A period of peace and unification followed Greek victory. By the middle of the century, the foundations of a democratic system were in place. In Athens, the statesman Pericles was an active promoter of the arts; he began to develop ambitious architectural projects for the acropolis. The fourth and fifth centuries B.C. were to become known as the “Golden Age” of Greek Art. New levels of naturalism and idealism were achieved and merged in the depiction of the human figure as well as in the construction of buildings.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory

    This unit will take approximately 13 hours to complete. 

    ☐ Subunit 2.1: 1.5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.2: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.3: 5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.3.1: 2.5 hours

    ☐ Sbunit 2.3.2: 1.25 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.3.3: 1.25 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.4: 3 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.5: 0.75 hour

    ☐ Subunit 2.6: 0.75 hour

    Unit2 Learning Outcomes

    Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

    • Trace the general timeline of the Classical period of Ancient Greece.
    • Explain how important historical developments and social-historical contexts had an impact on art’s evolution during Greece’s Classical period.
    • Link important historical and artistic developments of the Classical period of Ancient Greece to specific geographical contexts.
    • Identify the important stylistic and technical developments of the Classical period of Ancient Greek art.
    • Recognize and discuss important artworks from the Classical period of Ancient Greek art.
    • Discuss important artists from the Classical period of Ancient Greek art in terms of the style of their work.
  • 2.1 The Classical Period: 480-323 B.C.  

  • 2.1.1 Historical Background  

  • 2.1.2 The Development of Art in the Classical Period  

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Séan Hemingway’s “The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480-323 B.C.)”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Séan Hemingway’s “The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480-323 B.C.)” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article and view the images that accompany the overview by clicking on the thumbnail images situated above the article itself. Read the articles that accompany the slides. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2 Early Classical Art  

  • 2.2.1 The Temple of Zeus at Olympia  

    • Web Media: SUNY Oneonta’s “Temple of Zeus at Olympia”

      Link: SUNY Oneonta’s “Temple of Zeus at Olympia”
              
      Instructions: This resource will serve as an introduction to the temple of Zeus at Olympia as well as a visual “companion” to Dr. Gillian Shepherd’s lecture below. Make sure to go to the suggested links within the text and to take the “tour” of Ancient Olympia. It should take you approximately 30 minutes to look through this page and take the virtual tour of Olympia.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The Powerhouse Museum’s “Virtual Olympia”

      Link: The Powerhouse Museum’s “Virtual Olympia”

      Instructions: Please go to the website above and view the first seven videos. They are reconstructions of different parts of the sanctuary and temple of Zeus at Olympia as they may have appeared in ancient times. These videos should take 15 minutes to watch.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: iTunes U: La Trobe University: Dr. Gillian Shepherd’s “The Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia”

      Link: iTunes U: La Trobe University: Dr. Gillian Shepherd’s “The Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia”

      Instructions: Please listen to the lecture linked above. Shortly after the 23 minute mark, Dr. Shepherd begins discussing the Temple of Zeus. Please pay close especially close attention to discussion of the Temple of Zeus. It is nonetheless recommended that you listen to the first part of the lecture for some historical background as well as to get a feel for the way the temple relates to the larger sanctuary. Please look at the images on SUNY Oneonta’s page “Temple of Zeus at Olympia” while listening to the lecture. You are not required to listen to the last 12 minutes of lecture. It should take you about 40 minutes to listen to the parts of the lecture indicated in these instructions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

  • 2.2.2 The Charioteer of Delphi  

    • Web Media: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Charioteer of Delphi”

      Link: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Charioteer of Delphi” (HTML and QuickTime)

      Instructions: Please read this passage on the “Charioteer of Delphi,” a prime example of the Severe Style of the early Classical period.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3 Development of the Lost-Wax Technique  

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Séan Hemingway’s “The Technique of Bronze Statuary in Ancient Greece”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Colette Hemingway and Séan Hemingway’s “The Technique of Bronze Statuary in Ancient Greece” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article and view the images that accompany it by clicking on the thumbnail images situated above the article itself. Take careful notes on the importance of the Lost-Wax technique in the Classical period, and then read the articles that accompany the slides. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. David Drogin’s “Bronze Casting”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. David Drogin’s “Bronze Casting” (Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: Please watch this video to gain an understanding of the Lost-Wax technique.  Note: you will have viewed this video once before if you have taken the ARTH101: Art Appreciation and Techniques course. 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 2.3 Architecture in the Classical Period  

  • 2.3.1 The Acropolis of Athens: The Parthenon  

    • Web Media: iTunes U: The Open University: “The Acropolis and the Parthenon”

      Link: iTunes U: The Open University: “The Acropolis and the Parthenon” (iTunes U)

      Also available in:
      Adobe Flash

      Instructions: This is a series of short clips from the Open University made available through iTunes. Please listen to or watch “The Acropolis and the Parthenon,” “The Panathenaia and the Panatheniac Way,” “The Acropolis,” “The Parthenon,” “The Parthenon: Pediments and Metopes,” “The Parthenon Frieze,” and “Plan Drawings” (all the tracks that have an audio or video component to them). Note that the other tracks are transcripts. Each audio/video clip lasts between one and six minutes.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: PBS: Gary Glassman’s “Nova Interview with Jeffrey Hurwit”

      Link: PBS: Gary Glassman’s “Nova Interview with Jeffrey Hurwit” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this interview with the art historian Jeffrey Hurwit for a discussion of the Parthenon. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: PBS’s “Secrets of the Parthenon”

      Link: YouTube: PBS’s “Secrets of the Parthenon” (YouTube)

      Also available in:
      Adobe Flash

      Instructions: Please watch this video exploring the Parthenon’s construction in its entirety (approximately 53 minutes).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: The Parthenon,” “Reading Greek Temples: Refinements,” and “Reading Greek Temples: Decoration”

      Links: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: The Parthenon," (HTML) “Reading Greek Temples: Refinements,” (HTML) and “Reading Greek Temples: Decoration” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read these three passages. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—The Parthenon”

      Link: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—The Parthenon” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please look at the images of the Parthenon and read the captions to get a sense for its visual aspect, constitution, and organization. 

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 2.3.2 The Acropolis of Athens: The Temple of Athena Nike  

    • Reading: Illinois State University: Dr. J’s “Lecture: Illustrated Temple of Athena Nike (427-424 B.C.)”

      Link: Illinois State University: Dr. J’s “Lecture: Illustrated Temple of Athena Nike (427-424 B.C.)” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this short illustrated lecture discussing the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis of Athens.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: Reading: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Temple of Athena Nike”

      Link: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Temple of Athena Nike” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this passage on the “Temple of Athena Nike” for more context on this structure.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—Athena Nike”

      Link: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T.  Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—Athena Nike”(HTML)

      Instructions: Please look at the images of the Temple of Athena Nike and read the captions to get a general sense for its placement and visual characteristics. 

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 2.3.3 The Acropolis of Athens: The Erechtheum  

    • Reading: Illinois State University: Dr. J’s “Lecture: Illustrated Erechtheum Lecture”

      Link: Illinois State University: Dr. J’s “Lecture: Illustrated Erechtheum” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this short illustrated lecture, discussing the Erechtheum on the Acropolis of Athens.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—The Erechtheion”

      Link: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T.  Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis—The Erechtheion” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please look at the images of the Erechtheion and read the captions to get a general sense for its context, placement, and visual characteristics. 

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Erechtheion: Caryatid and Column”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Erechtheion: Caryatid and Column” (Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: Please watch this video for a discussion of the Caryatid, a type of sculpture intimately linked to the architecture of the Erechtheion.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

    • Reading: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Erechtheion”

      Link: Ancient-Greece.org’s “Erechtheion” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this passage on the “Erechtheion” for more context on this structure.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4 Classical Art: Sculpture  

    • Reading: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: “Sculpture: The Classical Period”

      Link: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: “Sculpture: The Classical Period” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage above.  When you are finished reading the first page, make sure you click on the links for pages 2 and 3; read all three pages of the article.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4.1 The Parthenon and the “Phidian” Style  

    • Web Media: YouTube: SmartHistory.org’s “Sculpture from the Parthenon’s East Pediment”

      Link: YouTube: SmartHistory.org’s “Sculpture from the Parthenon's East Pediment” (YouTube)
                
      Also available in:
      Adobe Flash

      Instructions: Please watch this 5-minute video for a discussion of a sculpture by Phidias, a fifth century sculptor in charge of the sculptural program of the acropolis of Athens under the statesmen Pericles. Pay close attention to discussion of his style.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

    • Web Media: iTunes U: UMBC Humanities and Social Science Forum: “The Parthenon East Metopes”

      Link: iTunes U: UMBC Humanities and Social Science Forum: “The Parthenon East Metopes” (iTunes U)

      Instructions: Available through iTunes, this recording is part of a humanities and social sciences course held at UMBC. Please scroll down and watch track 7 of this series (approximately 1 hour and 4 minutes).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the lecture above.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org’s “Parthenon Frieze”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “Parthenon Frieze” (Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: Please watch this brief, 5-minute video for a discussion of relief sculptures by Phidias on the frieze of the Parthenon. 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 2.4.2 Polykleitos and Cannons  

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Classical Greek Sculpture”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Classical Greek Sculpture” (Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: Please watch this 9-minute video, which discusses a sculpture by Polykleitos, a sculptor famous for having formulated a cannon of proportions that he used in his sculptures.  Note the process by which ancient artworks can end up in a museum. Pay close attention to the description of “contrapposto” and the idea of a unified whole governing the sculpture.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

    • Reading: Suny College at Oneonta: Dr. Allen S. Farber’s “Polyclitus’s Canon and the Idea of Symmetria”

      Link: Suny College at Oneonta: Dr. Allen S. Farber’s “Polyclitus’s Canonand the Idea of Symmetria (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this passage on the ideals of balance and proportion that took form in Polyclitus’s sculpture.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the terms of use and copyright of the webpage above.

  • 2.5 Classical Art: Red-Figure Painting and White-Ground Painting  

    • Web Media: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Culture’s “Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure Techniques”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Culture’s “Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure Techniques (HTML)

      Instructions: You will have read this article once before in subunit 1.6.5. Please quickly read it again, and view the images that accompany this overview by clicking on the thumbnail images above the text. Read the articles that accompany the slides for all of the vessels that were made during the Classical period in between the years 480 and 323 B.C. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.6 A Few Examples of Late Classical Art  

    • Reading: Oxford University’s Beazley Archive “Sculpture: The Classical Period”

      Link: Oxford University’s Beazley Archive: “Sculpture: The Classical Period” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage above.  When you are finished reading the first page, make sure you click on the link and read through the following page as well.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org’s “After Praxiteles, Venus (Roman Copy)”

      Link: SmartHistory.org’s “After Praxiteles, Venus (Roman Copy)” (Adobe Flash)

      Also available in:

      iTunes

      Instructions: Please watch this 9-minute video for a discussion of a Roman copy of a sculpture by Praxiteles, a renowned fourth century sculptor. For iTunes, select the link and scroll down to podcast number 91. Pay close attention to discussion of nudity and of the purpose of the reproduction in its original Roman context, and then pay attention to the purpose of the original Greek sculpture in its context.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.