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ARTH202: Art of Ancient Greece and Rome

  • Unit 1: Greek Art: Early Classical Antiquity  

    In this unit, we will study Greek art from 900 B.C. to the early 600s B.C. During this period, the area experienced an economic revival after what is sometimes referred to as the “Dark Age” of Greece. Along with enjoying renewed trade with other regions, Greece held its first Olympic Games and rich traditions in literature and the arts began to develop. 

    The period spanning from around 900 to 700 B.C. is known as the “geometric period” in art because of the predominance of geometric shapes in the forms and designs of sculpture and pottery painting. During the Archaic Period (from the 7th century B.C. to the early 5th century B.C.), Greece increased its trading activities with Eastern areas. As a result, Eastern influences became characteristic of the period’s art, as did an emphasis on the human figure. Archaic architecture is distinguished by its novel architectural “grammar,” or its unique combination of structural elements and ornamentation.

    Unit 1 Time Advisory

    This unit will take approximately 21 hours to complete.

    ☐ Subunit 1.1: 5 hours

    ☐ Smarhistory.org Reading: 0.5 hour

    ☐ Utah State University Reading: 0.5 hour

    ☐ Open University Reading: 4 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.2: 5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.2.1: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.2.2: 1 hour

    ☐ Subunit 1.2.3: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.3: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.4: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.5: 2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.6: 5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 1.6.1: 1 hour

    ☐ Subunit 1.6.2: 1 hour

    ☐ Subunit 1.6.3: 1 hour

    ☐ Subunit 1.6.4: 1 hour

    ☐ Subunit 1.6.5: 1 hour

    Unit1 Learning Outcomes

    Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

    • Explain why ancient Greek and Roman art can be studied together as the art of “Classical Antiquity.”
    • Trace the general timeline of ancient Greece and Rome.
    • Link the timeline of the Classical world to specific geography.
    • Identify important figures of Classical mythology.
    • Trace the general timeline of the Geometric and Archaic periods of Ancient Greece.
    • Explain how important historical developments and social-historical contexts had an impact on art’s evolution during the Geometric period in Greece.
    • Identify the important stylistic and technical developments of the Geometric and Archaic periods of ancient Greek art.
    • Recognize and discuss important artworks from the Geometric and Archaic periods of ancient Greek art.
  • 1.1 What Is Classical Antiquity?  

    • Reading: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Zucker’s “Ancient Greece and Rome”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Zucker’s “Ancient Greece and Rome” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this short article in order to understand why the study of Ancient Greece and Rome is often described as the study of “Classical Antiquity.”

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 (HTML). It is attributed to SmartHistory.org and the original version can be found here (HTML).

    • Reading: Utah State University: Mark Damen’s “Ancient Literature and Language: A Brief History of Early Ancient Civilization: Historical Overview of Greece and Rome”

      Link: Utah State University: Mark Damen’s “Ancient Literature and Language: “A Brief History of Early Ancient Civilization: Historical Overview of Ancient Greece and Rome” (PDF)

      Instructions: Via the link above, please scroll down to and read the passage titled “Historical Overview of Ancient Greece and Rome.”

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerives 2.0 Generic (HTML). It is attributed to Mark Damen and the original version can be found

      here (HTML). 

    • Reading: The Open University’s “Introducing the Classical World: Ancient Time” and “Introducing the Classical World: Ancient Places,” and “Introducing the Classical World: The Geography of the Classical World”

      Links: The Open University’s “Introducing the Classical World: Ancient Time,”(HTML) “Introducing the Classical World: Ancient Places,” (HTML) and “Introducing the Classical World: The Geography of the Classical World” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please click and read the links above, as well as the documents linked to those webpages. Additionally, please complete the activities in order to reinforce your grasp of the forces that shaped the timeline of Classical Antiquity. 

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 1.2 Early Classical Antiquity in Greece  

  • 1.2.1 Introduction to Greek History and Mythology  

    • Reading: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: A Very Brief Outline of Greek History (to A.D. 1453)”

      Link: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: A Very Brief Outline of Greek History (to A.D.  1453)” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read this article for a brief outline of Greek History. Keep in mind that while you should read the entire article, this course studies in particular only some of the periods discussed: the geometric period, the archaic period, the classical period, and the Roman period in Greece.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 (HTML). It is attributed to Kevin T. Glowacki and the original version can be found here (HTML). 

    • Reading: Utah State University: Mark Damen’s "Chapter 3: Ancient Literature and Language: An Introduction to Classical Mythology” and “Chapter 4: Homer and the 'Iliad’”

      Link: Utah State University: Mark Damen’s “Chapter 3: Ancient Literature and Language: An Introduction to Classical Mythology” (HTML) and “Chapter 4: Homer and The Iliad (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read these two passages for an introduction to classical mythology and Homer’s The Iliad, both of which formed the subject matter of many artworks of classical antiquity.

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (HTML). It is attributed to Mark Damen and the original version can be found here (HTML) and here (HTML). 

  • 1.2.2 The Geometric Period, 900-700 B.C.: A Cultural Rebirth  

  • 1.2.3 Arts in the Geometric Period  

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Geometric Art in Ancient Greece”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History:” The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Geometric Art in Ancient Greece” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article and view the visuals that accompany it by clicking on the thumbnail images situated above the text.  Please read the articles that accompany the images. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Lecture: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Pafford’s “Lecture 3: The Geometric” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.2.3”

      Link: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Pafford’s “Lecture 3: The Geometric” (YouTube) and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.2.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please view Professor Pafford’s video lecture via YouTube in its entirety (about 54 minutes); this lecture is part of a series of recordings for a course on Ancient Greek art taught at Santa Clara University by Isabelle Pafford. Take notes on the characteristics of Geometric art. Since no visuals accompany these recordings, please open the mini-gallery linked above to view the images referenced in the lecture.

      Terms of Use: The linked material above from Santa Clara has been reposted by the kind permission of Isabelle Pafford, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. The images are licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License: you may share and remix them under the conditions that you correctly attribute them and that you do not use them for commercial purposes.

  • 1.3 The Archaic Period, 700-480 B.C: Art in a Period of Increased Trade and Expansion  

  • 1.3.1 The Archaic Period: Historical Background  

  • 1.3.2 Arts of the Archaic Period: Overview  

    • Web Media: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Greek Art in the Archaic Period”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Greek Art in the Archaic Period” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article and view the photographs that accompany it by clicking on the thumbnail images situated above the article itself. Please read the articles that accompany the visuals. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.4 Architecture in the Archaic Period  

  • 1.4.1 What Is a Greek Temple?  

    • Reading: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: What Is a Greek Temple?”

      Link: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: What Is a Greek Temple?” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this short passage in order to get a general sense for the place and function of the temple within ancient Greek society. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

  • 1.4.2 Layout and Orders  

    • Reading: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: Architectural Styles”

      Link: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: Architectural Styles” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this passage in order to get a sense for the styles and conventions developed during the Archaic Period as well as an overview of the development of styles throughout Ancient Greek history as a whole. Note that during the Archaic Period, the Doric and Ionic orders of architecture were established.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

  • 1.4.3 Architecture and Sculptural Ornamentation  

    • Reading: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: Decoration”

      Link: Reed College: Ellen Millender and Alex Nice’s “Reading Greek Temples: Decoration” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this passage in order to get a sense for the way in which sculptural ornamentation came to be integrated into architectural conventions.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

  • 1.4.4 The Acropolis of Athens in the Archaic Era  

    • Web Media: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T. Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis,” “The Acropolis: General Views,” and “The Archaic Acropolis”

      Links: The Stoa Consortium: Kevin T.  Glowacki’s “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis,” (PDF) “The Acropolis: General Views,” (PDF) and “The Archaic Acropolis”  (PDF)

      Instructions: Read “The Ancient City of Athens: The Acropolis” for a sense of its development through different time periods. Then, click “The Acropolis: General Views” to look at the images of the acropolis, and read the captions for a general sense of the acropolis’ visual appearance and layout. Finally, click “The Archaic Acropolis” to look at the images, read the captions, and take notes on the Archaic elements of architecture within the acropolis. 

      Terms of Use: The article above is released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 (HTML). It is attributed to Kevin T.  Glowacki and the original version can be found here (The Acropolis), here (General Views) and here (The Archaic Acropolis) (HTML). 

  • 1.5 The Archaic Period: Monumental Sculpture  

  • 1.5.1 The Kouros  

    • Lecture: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Isabelle Pafford’s “Lecture 5: The Kouros: Walk Like an Egyptian, Only Naked” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.5.1”

      Link: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Isabelle Pafford’s “Lecture 5: The Kouros: Walk Like an Egyptian, Only Naked” (YouTube) and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.5.1” (PDF)

      Instructions: This recording is part of a course on ancient Greek art taught at Santa Clara University by Isabelle Pafford. Please view this entire video lecture (approximately 52 minutes) via YouTube, and take notes on the characteristics of the Kouros as well as its function. The discussion on the Kouros, a type of monumental sculpture that emerged in the Archaic period of Greek art, really starts at the six minute mark. Because no visuals accompany these recordings, please click on the “gallery” above to view some of the images referenced in the lecture. Though some of these links may not be the specific ones Professor Pafford bases her lecture on, they illustrate her points well. 

      Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of Isabelle Pafford, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. 

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: Monica Hahn and Brian Seymour’s “New York Kouros”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Monica Hahn and Brian Seymour’s “New York Kouros” (Adobe Flash)

      Also available on:

      iTunes

      Instructions: Please watch this video (3:43 minutes) for a discussion of the Kouros’ archaic sculpture. Pay particular attention to the video’s presentation of the nude, idealism and naturalism, stylization, and the Egyptian influence. For iTunes, select the link and choose podcast number 5.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike License: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 1.5.2 The Korai  

    • Lecture: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Isabelle Pafford’s “Lecture 6: Korai, Nymphs, and Respectable Ladies” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.5.2”

      Link: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Isabelle Pafford’s “Lecture 6: Korai, Nymphs, and Respectable Ladies” (YouTube) and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.5.2” (PDF)

      Instructions: This recording is part of a course on ancient Greek art taught at Santa Clara University by Professor Pafford. Please view the entire video lecture linked above via YouTube (51:30 minutes). Professor Pafford begins speaking about the Korai, the female counterpart to the Kouros, at the 10 minute mark. Listen to the lecture until you are 10 minutes away from its end. Please take notes on the Korai’s characteristics, role, and function. Because no visuals accompany these recordings, please go to the gallery linked above to view the artworks Professor Pafford mentions and discusses. 

      Terms of Use: The linked material above from Santa Clara has been reposted by the kind permission of Isabelle Pafford, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. The images are licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License: you may share and remix them under the conditions that you correctly attribute them and that you do not use them for commercial purposes.

  • 1.6 The Archaic Period: Pottery Painting  

  • 1.6.1 Introduction to Greek Vessels  

  • 1.6.2 The Influence of the East in 7th Century Pottery  

    • Reading: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: “Pottery: Techniques and Styles, Orientalizing”

      Link: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: "Pottery: Techniques and Styles, Orientalizing” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage above and read the passage “Orientalizing” to get a sense of the eastern influence on 7th century B.C. Greek pottery.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The University of Colorado’s “Classics Exhibit: Timeline: Geometric and Orientalizing Periods” and “Orientalizing Pottery”

      Links: The University of Colorado’s “Classics Exhibit: Timeline: Geometric and Orientalizing Periods” (HTML) and “Orientalizing Pottery” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to The University of Colorado’s webpage linked above, and scroll down to the thumbnail images under “Geometric and Orientalizing Periods.” View the last three images. Then, click on the highlighted number beside the thumbnail images to read about specific vessels. Finally, click and read “Orientalizing Pottery.”

      Terms of Use: Please respect the terms of use and copyright of the webpage above.

  • 1.6.3 Black-Figure Pottery Painting  

    • Lecture: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Pafford’s “Lecture 8: The Aesthetics of Black Figure” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Sub-subunit 1.6.3”

      Link: YouTube: Santa Clara University: Professor Pafford’s “Lecture 8: The Aesthetics of Black Figure” and The Saylor Foundation’s “Gallery for Subunit 1.6.3” (PDF)

      Instructions: This recording is part of a course on Ancient Greek art taught at Santa Clara University by Isabelle Pafford. Please view the video lecture in its entirety (approximately 19 minutes). Because no visuals accompany these recordings, please click on the “gallery” linked above. Though these images may not be the exact works to which Professor Pafford refers, they will give you a sense for the stylistic developments of black-figure pottery she discusses. 

      Terms of Use: The linked material above from Santa Clara has been reposted by the kind permission of Isabelle Pafford, and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder. The images are licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License: you may share and remix them under the conditions that you correctly attribute them and that you do not use them for commercial purposes.

    • Web Media: YouTube: SmartHistory.org’s “Mixing Vessel with Odysseus Escaping from the Cyclops’ Cave”

      Link: YouTube: SmartHistory.org’s “Mixing Vessel with Odysseus Escaping from the Cyclops’ Cave” (YouTube)

      Also available in:
      Adobe Flash

      iTunes

      Instructions: Please watch this video (8:22 minutes), which discusses a black-figure vase. For iTunes, select the link and scroll down to podcast number 35.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • 1.6.4 Black-Figure Pottery Painting: The Corinthian Tradition  

    • Reading: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: “Pottery: Techniques and Styles, Corinthian Pottery: An Introduction”

      Link: Oxford University: Beazley Archive: "Pottery: Techniques and Styles, Corinthian Pottery: An Introduction" (HTML)

      Instructions: Please go to the webpage above, and read the passage “Pottery: Techniques and Styles: Corinthian Pottery: An Introduction.”

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 1.6.5 The Attic Tradition: Black- and Red-Figure Pottery  

    • Web Media: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure Techniques”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Greek and Roman Art’s “Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure Techniques” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this article and view the images that accompany this overview by clicking on the thumbnail images above the article itself. View only the photographs of Black-Figure vases, and read the articles that accompany those visuals. Since there are names associated with specific artworks, try to get a sense for artists’ individual styles, particularly Exekias. 

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Euphronios, Attic Calyx-Krater”

      Link: SmartHistory.org: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Euphronios, Attic Calyx-Krater” (Adobe Flash)

      Also Available in:

      iTunes

      Instructions: Please watch this video (6:37 minutes), which presents a red-figure vase.  Pay particular attention to the discussions surrounding the topics of red-figure painting, naturalism, eastern influence in archaic art, the subtle representation of emotion, the profile face, and the purpose of the “calyx-krater.” For iTunes, select the link and scroll down to podcast number 93.

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

    • Web Media: iTunes U: Oxford University: John Boardman’s “Treasures of Oxford-Athenian Drinking Cup”

      Link: iTunes U: Oxford University: John Boardman’s “Treasures of Oxford-Athenian Drinking Cup” (iTunes U)

      Also available in:
      Mp4 Video

      Instructions: This recording is available through iTunes. When you go to the link above, please click on track 1. Watch this short video, in which John Boardman discusses a red-figure Athenian drinking cup and what its shape reveals about Greek culture, its material, and the red-figure drawing inside of it. 

      Terms of Use: This open educational resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike: you may share and adapt the work under the conditions that you correctly attribute it, that you do not use it for commercial purposes, and, that in the case you adapt and distribute it, you do so under a similar license.

  • Unit 1 Assessment  

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Quiz 1”

      Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Quiz 1” (PDF) and “Quiz 1 Answer Key” (PDF).

      Instructions: Please take the above quiz.  Please answer the 15 questions within one hour without consulting the course content. Once you have completed the quiz, you may consult the answer key for help in evaluating your work.

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Essay 1"

      Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Essay 1" (PDF) and “Essay 1 Answer Key” (PDF).

      Instructions: Please write a short critical essay discussing an artwork with which you have become acquainted through the course. As well as identifying the artwork, you should describe and discuss its form, function, and meaning, as well as its historical and art-historical significance. Please write this essay within one hour without consulting the course content. Once you have completed the assignment, you may consult the answer key for help in evaluating your work.