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ARTH201: Art of Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East

  • Unit 2: The Art of the Ancient Near East  

    This unit focuses on the art, architecture, and archaeology of the Ancient Near East, from the late Neolithic (c. 9500-4500 BCE) until the defeat of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 BCE) by Alexander the Great. It begins by examining the art and architecture associated with the urban revolution in Mesopotamia and then focuses on the art and architecture of the various empires and military powers based in Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the third-first millennium BCE.

    After completing this unit, you will be able to identify the major characteristics of ancient Near Eastern art and architecture, the important role that city, temple, palace, and monument building played in definitions of ancient Near Eastern kingship, as well as how successive rulers adopted and adapted the art forms and architectural programs of their predecessors.

    Unit 2 Time Advisory

    This unit will take you approximately 63.25 hours to complete.

    ☐ Subunit 2.1: 9 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.2: 13.5 hours

        ☐ Guided Observation 2 [Subunit 2.2]: 1-2 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.3: 9 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.4: 9 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.5: 4.5 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.6: 9.25 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.7: 4.5 hours

     ☐ Guided Observation 3 [Subunit 2.7]: 3 hours

    ☐ Subunit 2.8: 9 hours

    Unit2 Learning Outcomes

    Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

    • Identify major ancient Near Eastern architectural sites, monuments, and works of art.
    • Identify the general characteristics of ancient Near Eastern art and recognize the names and characteristics of the major art historical time periods of each region.
    • Explain developments in ancient Near Eastern urban planning and conceptions of the afterlife and kingship, as well as their relationship to architectural sites, monuments, and works of art.
    • Describe how art and architecture can be used to understand the politics, history, and cultures of the ancient Near East.
  • 2.1 The Neolithic (c. 9500-4500 BCE)  

  • 2.1.1 Overview of the Neolithic Period  

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Neolithic Ancient Near East”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.1.2 Early Settled Communities in the Ancient Near East  

  • 2.1.2.1 Göbekli Tepe  

    • Reading: Smithsonian.com: Andrew Curry’s “Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?”

       Link: Smithsonian.com: Andrew Curry’s “GöbekliTepe: The World’s First Temple?” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this article in its entirety (3 pages) as an introduction to the site of Göbekli Tepe.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

    • Web Media: Smithsonian.com Berthold Steinhilber’s Photos from “Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?”

      Link: Smithsonian.com Berthold Steinhilber’s Photos from “Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?” (HTML)

      Instructions: This link directs you to images from Göbekli Tepe that accompany the above article; click on “Next” to view all the images (13 in total).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 2.1.2.2 Nevali Çori  

    • Reading: Ancient Wisdom’s “Nevali Çori”

      Link: Ancient Wisdom’s “Nevali Çori” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this webpage as an introduction to the site of Nevali Çori.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.1.2.3 ‘Ain Ghazal  

    • Reading: The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution: Preserving Ancient Statues from Jordan’s “Introduction to the Statues,” “Discovering the Statues,” “Making the Statues,” “Preserving the Statues,” and “Investigating Art and Ritual”

      Links: The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution: Preserving Ancient Statues from Jordan’s “Introduction to the Statues,” (HTML) “Discovering the Statues,” (HTML) “Making the Statues,” (HTML) and “Preserving the Statues” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the above webpages as an introduction to the site of ‘Ain Ghazal and the statues found there. On “Making the Statues” make sure to click on the following hyperlinks: “A Plant Core,” Assembling the Parts,” “Modeling the Head,” and “Making and Using Plaster.” On the “Preserving the Statues” webpage, make sure to click on the hyperlinks: “Uncovering,” “Examining,” “Piecing Together,” and “Displaying.”

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 2.1.2.4 Çatalhöyük  

    • Reading: University of California, Berkeley: Remixing Çatalhöyük’s “Welcome to the Çatalhöyük Project” and “Life Histories of Peoples, Places, and Things”

      Links: University of California, Berkeley: Remixing Çatalhöyük’s “Welcome to the Çatalhöyük Project” (Adobe Flash) and “Life Histories of Peoples, Places, and Things” (Adobe Flash)

      Instructions: On the first webpage, click on “Learn More” in the bottom left hand corner. Then, use the arrows on the right to scroll down and read the entire text that introduces you to the site of Çatalhöyük and the excavations conducted there by archaeologists from the University of California, Berkeley. Please read the entire text on the second webpage as well. Watching the video which automatically plays on this page is optional.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 2.1.2.5 Jericho  

  • 2.2 Art and Architecture of the Uruk and Early Dynastic (c. 4000-2350 BCE) Periods  

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “Uruk and Sumer: Art and Architecture of the First Cities and the Early Dynastic Period”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.2.1 Uruk: The First City  

    • Reading: Edukalife: “Mesopotamia”

      Link: Edukalife: “Mesopotamia” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this article that defines ancient Mesopotamia and outlines many important historical facts about this geographic region in ancient Near Eastern history.

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. It is attributed to Edukalife. 

    • Reading: Boundless: “Sumer”

      Link: Boundless: “Sumer” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this article that describes the historical importance of the earliest Mesopotamian civilization, Sumer.

      Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Boundless. 

    • Web Media: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Archaeological Site Photographs: Mesopotamia: Uruk

      Link: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Archaeological Site Photographs: Mesopotamia: Uruk (HTML)

      Instructions: Tour the ancient city of Uruk through these photos. Click on “Start slideshow,” and click on “Next” to view each image.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.2 Cuneiform  

    • Reading: Smarthistory: Dr. Senta German’s “Cuneiform and the Invention of Writing”

      Link: Smarthistory: Dr. Senta German’s “Cuneiform and Invention of Writing” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this text as an introduction to the origin of writing in Mesopotamia.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: UCLA: Erin Flannery‘s “Treasures of the UCLA Library: Cuneiform Tablets (Part 3 of 5)”

      Link: You Tube: UCLA: Erin Flannery’s “Treasures of the UCLA Library: Cuneiform Tablets (Part 3 of 5)” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this video in its entirety (4:01 minutes) to learn more about cuneiform tablets.

      Note on the Media: This video was written and directed by Erin Flannery. This section of the video series features Sara Brumfield, who in 2008 was a PhD candidate in Near Eastern Languages and Cultures.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3 Art and Architecture of Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2350 BCE)  

  • 2.2.3.1 Nippur  

    Note: Nippur would continue to be an important religious and political center through the Neo-Assyrian period (934-608 BCE).

    • Reading: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Professor McGuire Gibson’s “Nippur: Sacred City of Enlil, Supreme God of Sumer and Akkad”

      Link: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Professor McGuire Gibson’s “Nippur: Sacred City of Enlil, Supreme God of Sumer and Akkad” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety as an introduction to the important ancient Mesopotamian city of Nippur. Make sure to click on the links throughout the text to view the images accompanying this article.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3.2 Royal Tombs of Ur  

    • Reading: The British Museum: Explore/Highlights’ “The Royal Graves of Ur” and “Related Content for the Article ‘The Royal Graves of Ur’”

      Links: The British Museum: Explore/Highlights’ “The Royal Graves of Ur” (PDF) and “Related Content for the Article ‘The Royal Graves of Ur’” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read both articles above.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by the British Museum. It can be viewed in its original form here: “The Royal Graves of Ur” (HTML) and “Related Content for the Article ‘The Royal Graves of Ur’” (HTML)

    • Web Media: The British Museum: Royal Tombs of Ur: Explore

      Link: The British Museum: Royal Tombs of Ur: Explore (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on different parts of the map to explore the Royal Tombs of Ur.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The British Museum: The Royal Tombs of Ur: Challenge

      Link: The British Museum: The Royal Tombs of Ur: Challenge (HTML, Adobe Shockwave)

      Instructions: Please note that playing this game is optional. Play a board game excavated from the Royal Tombs of Ur by clicking on “Next.” You will need to download an Adobe Shockwave plug-in to play this game; please note that some operating systems do not support this plug-in.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: Penn Museum’s “Royal Tombs of Ur”

      Link: You Tube: Penn Museum’s “Royal Tombs of Ur” (YouTube)
                           
      Instructions: Please watch this video about the excavations at the site of the Royal Tombs of Ur in its entirety (7:02 minutes).
                
      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: Smarthistory: Ancient Near East: Monica Hahn’s and Brian Seymour’s “Great Lyre’”

      Link: Smarthistory: Ancient Near East: Monica Hahn’s and Brian Seymour’s “Great Lyre’” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this video about a lyre excavated from the Royal Tombs of Ur in its entirety (9:13 minutes).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3.3 Early Dynastic Sculpture  

    • Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “Early Dynastic Sculpture, 2900–2350 B.C”

      Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “Early Dynastic Sculpture, 2900–2350 B.C” (HTML)
                
      Instructions: First, read the text as an introduction to Early Dynastic period and Early Dynastic Sculptures. After you have read the text, click on “View Slideshow” to examine examples of Early Dynastic Sculptures from the late fourth to late third millennium BCE.  Make sure to click on each image, and read the accompanying text.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.2.3.4 Ziggurats  

    • Reading: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Sumer: Ziggurats

      Link: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Sumer: Ziggurats (HTML)

      Instructions: First, read the introduction, and then at the bottom of the webpage, click on “Story.” Next, click on the arrows below the black box to read more about ziggurats.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Sumer: Ziggurats: Explore

      Link: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Sumer: Ziggurats: Explore (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the pictures to learn about the excavations of the ziggurat of Ur.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Guided Observation #2  

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Guided Observation 2: Pyramids vs. Ziggurats”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.3 Art and Architecture of the Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian Periods (c. 2340 BC - 1932 BCE)  

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “Akkadian, Gudean, and Old Babylonian Art and Architecture”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.3.1 Historical Overview  

  • 2.3.2 Akkadian Sculpture  

  • 2.3.2.1 Bronze Head of an Akkadian Ruler  

    • Reading: Learner.org: Art Through Time: Global Perspectives’ “Royal Portrait Head (‘Head of Sargon the Great’)”

      Link: Learner.org: Art Through Time: Global Perspectives’ “Royal Portrait Head (‘Head of Sargon the Great’)” (HTML)
                           
      Instructions: Please read this text about an example of Akkadian sculpture.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.2.2 Naram-Sin Stele  

    • Web Media: Smarthistory: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Victory Stele of Naram-Sin”

      Link: Smarthistory: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker’s “Victory Stele of Naram-Sin” (Flash Video)

      Instructions: Please watch this video about the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin in its entirety (3:23 minutes).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.3.3 Akkadian Cylinder Seals  

    Note: This subunit is covered by the reading assigned in 2.3.1.

  • 2.3.4 Gudean Sculptures (2150-2100 BCE)  

    NOTE: Gudea was a ruler of Lagash, one of the many Mesopotamian city-states after the collapse of the Akkadian Empire during the Neo-Sumerian Period. Gudean sculptures, which were made either during his or his son Ur-Ningirsu’s reign, are usually contrasted with earlier Akkadian sculpture

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History’s “Seated Statue of Gudea, 2150–2100 B.C.”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History’s “Seated Statue of Gudea, 2150–2100 B.C.” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the text about this object to learn about Gudean statues created during the Neo-Sumerian Period.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.4 Art and Architecture of the Old Babylonian Period (c. 2000-1600 BCE)  

    • Reading: The British Museum: Explore/Highlights’ “Old Babylonian Period” and “Related Content for the Article ‘Old Babylonian Period’”

      Links: The British Museum: Explore/Highlights’ “Old Babylonian Period” (PDF) and “Related Content for the Article ‘Old Babylonian Period’” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read both articles. 

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by the British Museum. It can be viewed in its original form here: "Old Babylonian Period” (HTML) and “Related Content for the Article ‘Old Babylonian Period’” (HTML).

    • Reading: Louvre: Near Eastern Antiquities: Mesopotamia’s “Law Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon”

      Link: Louvre: Near Eastern Antiquities: Mesopotamia’s “Law Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the text about famous stele with the law code of King Hammurabi.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.5 Art and Architecture of the Hittites (c. 1650-1200 BCE)  

  • 2.5.1 Historical Overview  

  • 2.5.2 The Hittite Capital of Hattusha  

    • Reading: German Archaeological Institute: The Excavations at Hattusha’s “A Brief History of Hattusha/Bo?azköy,” “The Lower City,” “Temple 1 and Storerooms,” “The Lion Gate,” “The Temple District in the Upper City,” and “The Royal Citadel of Büyükkale”

      Links: German Archaeological Institute: The Excavations at Hattusha’s “A Brief History of Hattusha/Bo?azköy,” “The Lower City,” “Temple 1 and Storerooms,” “The Lion Gate,” “The Temple District in the Upper City,” and “The Royal Citadel of Büyükkale” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read these webpages as an introduction to the Hittite capital of Hattusha. For more information and to explore other areas of the excavations conducted there by the German Archaeological Institute please visit “City Tour.”

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 2.5.3 Rock-cut Sanctuary at Yazilikaya  

    • Reading: German Archaeological Institute: The Excavations of Hattusha’s “The Hittite Rock Sanctuary of Yazilikaya”

      Links: German Archaeological Institute: The Excavations of Hattusha’s “The Hittite Rock Sanctuary of Yazilikaya” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read this webpage about the rock-cut sanctuary of Yazilikaya.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • 2.5.4 Hittite Ritual Art: Zoomorphic Vessels and Other Ritual Art  

    Note: *This subunit is covered in the reading assigned beneath 2.5.1. Focus on the images on this page and their accompanying text. Please think about how these objects are different from or similar to other Ancient Near Eastern art you have seen.*

  • 2.6 Assyrian Art and Architecture (1365–609 BCE)  

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “Neo-Assyrian Art and Architecture”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.6.1 Historical Overview  

  • 2.6.2 Neo-Assyrian (934-608 BCE) Cities and Palace Architecture  

    • Reading: The British Museum: Explore: Related Content for the Gallery “Room 7-8: Assyria: Nimrud”

      Link: The British Museum: Explore: Related Content for the Gallery “Room 7-8: Assyria: Nimrud” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read the article.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by the British Museum. It can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 2.6.2.1 Nimrud and Ashurnasirpal II’s Northwest Palace (883–859 BCE)  

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Ashurnasirpal II’s Northwest Palace”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Web Media: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Palaces of Assyria: “Explore”

      Link: The British Museum: Mesopotamia: Palaces of Assyria: “Explore” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the different part of the architectural plan to explore the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II’s Northwest Palace.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: YouTube: metrowestvideos’s “Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum at the MFA”

      Link: You Tube: metrowestvideos’s “Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum at the MFA” (YouTube)

      Instructions: Please watch this brief video (4:39 minutes) in its entirety.

      Note on the Media: In this video, Larry Berman, the Senior Curator of Ancient Egyptian, Nubian, and Near Eastern Art at the Museum of Fine Art, Boston examines in detail the stone panel from Ashurnasirpal II’s palace that depicts the Battle of Til-Tuba in 635 BC in which the king defeated the Elamites.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: Smarthistory: Ancient Near East: Monica Hahn and Brian Seymour’s “Neo-Assyrian Art: Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull (Lamassu)”

      Link: Smarthistory: Ancient Near East: Monica Hahn and Brian Seymour’s“Neo-Assyrian Art: Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull (Lamassu)” (YouTube) 

      Instructions: Please watch this short video about a Neo-Assyrian lamassu in its entirety (4:34 minutes).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.6.2.2 Sargon II’s Khorsabad (721–705 BCE)  

    • Reading: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago’s “Excavations at Khorsabad” and “Highlights from the Collection: Assyria”

      Links: Reading: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago’s “Excavations at Khorsabad” (HTML) and “Highlights from the Collection: Assyria” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read these two webpages as an introduction to Khorsabad and the excavations conducted there by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

    • Reading: The British Museum: Explore/Highlight’s “Colossal Winged Bull from the Palace of Sargon II”

      Link: The British Museum: Explore/Highlight’s “Colossal Winged Bull  from  the Palace of Sargon II” (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read this page about a lamassu from Khorsabad now in the collection of the British Museum.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by the British Museum. It can be viewed in its original form here (HTML).

  • 2.6.2.3 Nineveh and Sennacherib’s “Palace without Rival” (704–681 B.C.)  

    • Reading: Brown University: Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World: Ömür Harmansah’s “The Archaeology of Mesopotamia: Sennacherib and Nineveh” Lecture Notes

      Link: Brown University: Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World: Ömür Harmansah’s “The Archaeology of Mesopotamia: Sennacherib and Nineveh” Lecture Notes

      Instructions: Please read this text about Sennacherib’s urban planning projects at Nineveh.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Reading: The British Museum: Explore: Related Content for the Gallery "Room 9: Assyria: Nineveh"

      Link: The British Museum: Explore: Related Content for the Gallery “Room 9: Assyria: Nineveh" (PDF)

      Instructions: Please read above text.

      Terms of Use: The material above has been reposted with permission for educational use by the British Museum. It can be viewed in its original form here.

  • 2.7 Art and Architecture of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (626-539 BCE)  

    Note: In this subunit, you will learn about and view images of the Ishtar Gate. The Ishtar Gate was built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 575 BCE and was the entrance to the city of Babylon via the Processional Way. The gate was reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin in the 1930’s using materials from excavations conducted by the German archaeologist Robert Koldewey. Other pieces of the gate are scattered throughout museums in Turkey, Europe, and North America.

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “Neo-Babylonian Art and Architecture”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "Neo-Babylonian Empire"

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “Two Panels with Striding Lions”

      Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “Two Panels with Striding Lions” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read the text on this webpage about the Ishtar Gate in its entirety.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    • Web Media: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Collections/Institutes: Museum of the Ancient Near East’s “Picture Gallery”

      Link: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Collections/Institutes: Museum of the Ancient Near East’s “Picture Gallery” (HTML)

      Instructions: Click on the hyperlink titled “show big picture” to look at larger views of the reconstructed Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Guided Observation #3  

    • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Guided Observation 3: Ancient Near Eastern Depictions of Power”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.8 Art and Architecture of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 BCE)  

    NOTE: The Achaemenid Empire served as an inspiration for the organization of the Mauryan Empire, and elements of Persian art can be found in Mauryan and Gandharan art and architecture.

    • Lecture: YouTube: The Saylor Foundation’s “Achaemenid Art and Architecture”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

  • 2.8.1 Historical Overview  

    • Reading: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.)”

      Link: Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: The Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art’s “The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.)” (HTML)

      Instructions: Read this overview of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. After you have read the text, click on “View Slideshow” to examine some examples of Achaemenid Persian Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Make sure to click on each image, and read the accompanying text.

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.8.2 Achaemenid Building Projects  

  • 2.8.2.1 Pasargadae  

    • Reading: The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies: David Stronach’s “Pasargadae” and Antigoni Zournatzi’s “The Tomb of Cyrus the Great”

      Links: The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies: David Stronach’s “Pasargadae” (HTML) and Antigoni Zournatzi’s “The Tomb of Cyrus the Great” (HTML)

      Instructions: Please read these texts as an introduction to the city of Pasargadae and the tomb of Cyrus the Great (c.600/576-530 BCE).

      Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • 2.8.2.2 Persepolis  

    • Web Media: You Tube: Omidir’s “Persepolis Recreated-Part 1 of 5 English Version,” “Persepolis Recreated-Part 2 of 5 English Version,” “Persepolis Recreated-Part 3 of 5 English Version,” and “Persepolis Recreated-Part 4 of 5 English Version”

      The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

      Submit Materials

    • Reading: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: “Persepolis and Ancient Iran”: “Introduction” and “Persepolis Terrace: Architecture, Reliefs, and Finds”

      Links: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: “Persepolis and Ancient Iran”: “Introduction” (HTML) and “Persepolis Terrace: Architecture, Reliefs, and Finds” (HTML)

      Instructions: First, read “Introduction” that provides an overview of the city of Persepolis and the excavations conducted there by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Then, read the introductory text on “Persepolis Terrace: Architecture, Reliefs, and Finds.” Click on the hyperlinks for each of the following and read the accompanying text: “Palace Complex: Structures, Reliefs, and Inscriptions,” “The Apadana,” “The Throne Hall,” “The Gate of Xerxes” “The Palace of Darius,” “The Palace of Xerxes,” “The Council Hall,” and “The Royal Tombs and Other Monuments.” Make sure to click on the links on the bottom of each of these pages, and view the slideshow associated with each.

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